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of the materials, however, yields a good balance of performances for both high-density soldering and flexing endurance. 61.8.3.2 Polyimide/Dry-Film Type. The physical performance of the polyimide/dry-film type is excellent.When applied to polyimide-based adhesiveless laminates, it provides very high heat resistance and good dimensional stability. Also, it has high electrical properties. It has been applied in high-density wiring of interconnection in the head suspension of disk drives. The major issues with this material are the complicated pattern-generation process and high material cost. It requires multiple chemical processes using special chemical solutions. A hightemperature baking of over 250 C is another difficulty. This is required to complete the standard manufacturing process of flexible circuits. 61.8.4 Liquid-Based Photoimageable Coverlay Eventually, photoimageable coverlay could be the practical solution for HDI flexible circuits in large-volume production. It is similar to the solder mask of rigid circuit boards; however, the materials for flexible circuits must have high flexibility. None of the materials developed as solder masks for rigid boards are available for flexible circuits, even though dynamic flexing is not required. The liquid PIC requires special coating equipment such as a screen printer or sprayer. It can, however, provide a low-cost coverlay for large-volume production. 61.8.4.1 Epoxy/Liquid Ink. This material combination has been providing the best cost/performance combination for large-volume applications. Many manufacturers have tried to develop a good photoimageable coverlay with this combination, and Table 61.17 shows several successful examples. They provide good performance balances in mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties. A specialty is that these materials yield higher flexibility, without serious curling during the thermal processing, than other materials offer. These materials are available by screen printing, spray coating, and other coating methods. UL-certified grades are available for commercial use. The flexibility of the materials allows several cycles of bending; however, the materials are not available for the long-term flexing that applications such as hard disk drives and printers require. 61.8.4.2 Polyimide/Liquid Ink. This material concept was generated as the reliable thin dielectric layer of flexible circuits for both substrates and coverlay. Polyimide/liquid ink is highly reliable for a wide range of thicknesses. A 10 mm thick layer could have sufficient performance to be a coverlay of a high-density flexible circuit. An appropriate combination with an adhesiveless copper laminate allows long-term dynamic flexing. The major issues are short pot life and high cost. Some of the ink materials must be stored at a temperature lower than 0 C. The materials require severe process conditions, especially for the final curing, where they require a temperature higher than 300 C. The cost of polyimide-based photoimageable materials is 5 to 10 times higher than for epoxy-based materials.
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All kinds of sheet or board material could be used as stiffener materials for the flexible circuits; however, several materials are commonly used. Typical stiffener materials for the traditional flexible circuits are listed in Table 61.19. Paper phenol boards and glass-epoxy boards are employed for relatively thick requirements. Polyimide films and polyester films are employed for relatively thin requirements. Aluminum plates and stainless steel plates are commonly used as the stiffener materials of flexible circuits. A specialty of the metal stiffeners is their forming capabilities after they are bonded on flexible circuits. Paper phenol and polyester are not available for thermo setting adhesives because of the low heat resistance.
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TABLE 61.19 Comparison of Stiffener Materials Paper/phenol Thickness range (mm) Soldering Adhesion by thermoset resin Cost 500 2,500 Possible No Low Glass-epoxy 100 2,000 Possible Possible High Polyimide 25 125 Possible Possible Medium Polyester 25 250 No No Low Metal Very wide Possible Possible Medium
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Several different types of adhesive materials can be used in flexible circuits depending on the application, except for the adhesive layer of copper laminates and film coverlays. The major applications are the bonding of stiffeners and multilayer constructions. Table 61.20 compares the materials. Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) provide a lowcost solution due to their simple application process. A problem of PSA is creep characteristics under mechanical stress, as PSA cannot maintain the exact positions of the stiffener boards under the stress. Thermosetting adhesives provide a reliable bonding between the layers, but they require a long processing time in a heat press with suitable press pad materials and impose a higher processing cost. Usually, the adhesive materials are supplied on or between separation sheets by rolled form. They should be kept in the refrigerators. The mechanical pretreatments are conducted with the separation sheets.
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TABLE 61.20 Comparison of Adhesive Materials for Flexible Circuits Thermosetting epoxy and acrylic resin Reliability Bond strength Creep Soldering Application process Process temperature Material cost Total cost High High Small OK Complicated 160 180 C Low High Hot-melt-type polyimide resin High High Small OK Complicated >330 C High Very high Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) Acceptable Acceptable Large OK Simple Room temperature Low Low
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