barcode reading using c#.net RESTRICTION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES (ROHS) ISSUES in Software

Creating QR Code in Software RESTRICTION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES (ROHS) ISSUES

61.11 RESTRICTION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES (ROHS) ISSUES
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Two issues have arisen regarding RoHS requirements for the flexible circuit materials: flameretardant molecules with bromine in adhesive resins, and heat resistance for high-temperature processing with lead-free soldering.Although the issue of bromine is not actually a part of the RoHS requirement, it has been linked to the general environmental issues of printed circuit materials and processes. Adhesiveless copper laminates can be the solution for the both of these problems because they do not use adhesive layers and have much higher heat resistance than adhesive-based
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PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
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laminates. However, because some of the applications need adhesive-based copper laminates, manufacturers of flexible laminates have been developing alternative materials without bromine-based flame-retardant reagents. There have been technical barriers to developing new materials with a good balance of performances for coverlay eliminating bromine compounds. Film coverlay have to have an adhesive layer with some flame-retardant reagent. Few new epoxy resins have good balance for all of the physical performances without bromine compounds. New materials of photoimageable coverlay have been developed without bromine molecules. Not many choices offer a balanced performance, especially high flexibilities for dynamic flexing. Polyimide-based photoimageable coverlays are the solution to satisfy the all of the physical requirements, but these polyimide materials are remarkably more expensive.
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DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
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62.1 INTRODUCTION
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Because of the broad wiring capabilities now available, it is possible to cover all 3-D wiring of an electronic product by one flex circuit, or by a set of multilayer rigid/flex circuits, without the need for connectors, extra cables, and soldering. However, to achieve this, the shape of the flex circuit may be very complicated and the size may be large. As a result, the final cost could be extremely high. If so, the use of flexible circuits is not an acceptable solution, especially for large-volume consumer applications. It may be better to divide the wiring into two or more parts to make each circuit simpler.A combination of simple circuits can be less expensive than one flex circuit, even though it mandates several connections between different circuits.A circuit designer should also consider the manufacturing convenience of flex circuits. There are serious differences among rigid circuit boards. A small design modification can sometimes reduce the total cost significantly.
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62.2 DESIGN PROCEDURE
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To achieve the best cost-performance combination for a wiring design with flex circuits, an appropriate design procedure is recommended, as illustrated in Fig. 62.1. The steps in the process are as follows: 1. A design concept for an electronic product is determined according to the basic specifications for the final product. 2. A logical circuit design and electronic circuit design are formulated. 3. A design for the equipment housing is made according to the final product concept. (This should sometimes be done independently in the case of consumer applications, especially for portable electronic products.) 4. The circuit design is formulated. Appropriate circuit selection is conducted depending on total conditions such as allowed space, sizes of components, operating temperature, possible assembling process, required reliability, and so on.
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PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
FIGURE 62.1 Design procedure for flexible circuits.
5. A flex circuit or a combination with a flex circuit is considered to be the solution for a small wiring space. 6. If the first circuit design does not satisfy the original specifications, the previous design steps are repeated to solve the conflicts. 7. A suitable value analysis is done to minimize the total wiring cost. 8. Conductor trace patterns and coverlay opening patterns are designed to minimize the mechanical stress. 9. Numerical data for photo plotter, NC drilling, punching dies, and other tooling is generated.
TYPES OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
Flexible circuits allow for more variety in their basic structures and supplemental structures than do rigid circuit boards, as shown in Table 62.1. Flexible circuits have single-side or double-side constructions with through holes similar to rigid boards. However, multi-layer construction has significant differences from rigid boards; this is because the flexibility of the composite board will be very low when the circuit has more than two conductor layers. Therefore, the flexing parts of the circuit have to have special layer constructions to keep flexibility. The construction is called rigid/flex when the rigid part includes rigid board materials such as glass/epoxy. A simple single-side or double-side flexible circuit is mechanically fragile, so coverlay and stiffener boards are generally added as the supplemental structures of the flexible circuits. Further special constructions, such as flying leads and dimples, are used for specific applications.
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