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DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
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FIGURE 62.4 Fine line capabilities. Potential line pitch is noted for copper thickness alternatives along with whether a given thickness leads itself to highvolume production or requires too a high level of technical interaction.
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The manufacturing process for the film coverlay is very complicated compared to the solder masks of the rigid boards, so the final cost of the circuits cannot be low. Flexible, screen-printable inks are a low-cost solution; however, most of the ink materials made of epoxy resins do not have good mechanical properties and cannot be applied for dynamic flexing usage. A combination of polyimide-based screen-printable coverlay on adhesiveless copper-clad laminate provides the smallest total thickness with very long flexing endurance life. A comparison of cross sections is shown in Fig. 62.5.
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FIGURE 62.5 Cross section of a single-sided flexible circuit showing (a) adhesives-based laminate and film overlay; (b) adhesiveless laminate with liquid coverlay.
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PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
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TABLE 62.3 Varieties of Coverlay Thickness (mm) 30 100 30 100 10 20 25 50 10 20 Dimensional accuracy (minimum opening) 0.3 mm (800 mm) 50 mm (50 mm) 0.3 mm (600 mm) 50 mm (80 mm) 50 mm (80 mm) Reliability (flexing endurance) High (long) High (long) Acceptable (short) Acceptable (short) Acceptable (short)
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Material selection Traditional film coverlay Film coverlay + laser drilling Screen print liquid ink Photoimageable (dry film type) Photoimageable (liquid ink type) PI, PET PI, PET Epoxy, PI Epoxy, PI, acrylic Epoxy, PI
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High-density flexible circuits that have been developed since 1990 need a small pitch opening with high accuracy on the coverlay. Because traditional coverlay technologies have no capabilities to meet these requirements, new technologies were required. Many new technologies and new materials have been developed to satisfy the new requirements of high-density flexible circuits. The capabilities of the major technologies are shown in Table 62.3. For example, laser drilling is capable of generating openings smaller than 100 microns on the traditional film coverlay; therefore it satisfies the requirements of physical performance and high density SMT assembling. However, the processing costs of the laser abrasion are much higher than other coverlay processes, and it is difficult to apply for the high volume production of consumer applications. A screen-printing process provides a slightly higher resolution than traditional pre-punching process of the film coverlay, but the process can not satisfy the recent requirement for high density SMT assembly. A practical solution is the combination of film coverlay for the flexing areas and solder mask for the SMT areas. It needs supplemental processing to complete the construction, accordingly the total process yield will be lower and the final cost of the circuits could be higher. The idea of the photo-imageable coverlay could be the final solution to solve the all requirements, including the processing cost. The photo-imageable solder mask materials developed for rigid boards are too brittle, however, and a lot of cracks can be created easily by small radius bending requiring flexible materials. Several types of flexible photo-imageable coverlay materials have been developed with different base resin systems. Most of the photo-imageable coverlay materials provide finer resolutions than 200 micron pitches, but the physical performances very depend on the base resin systems. Suitable material should be chosen for the applications. Appropriate surface treatments for the bare conductors after the coverlay construction should be chosen according to termination technologies. Several examples are listed in Table 62.4. Details are explained in Chap. 64.
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TABLE 62.4 Surface Treatments and Termination Technologies Surface treatment Solder and lead-free solder Lead-free Hot-air leveling OSP (pre-flux) Hard Ni/Au plating Soft Ni/Au plating Tin Termination technologies Lead-free soldering, FFC connector Lead-free soldering Lead-free soldering Connector, pressure contact Wire bonding, direct bonding Lead-free soldering
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