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However, appropriate backing boards and drilling conditions should be determined to achieve good hole quality. A suitable combination of the NC drilling machine and drilling bit can generate smaller holes than 100 microns diameter. A punching process with a suitable die set is available for the thin, flexible copper laminate. It can provide a low-cost solution, but it needs a large-volume production to compensate for the high-cost die. A small-diameter punching process controlled by an NC system is available for thin, flexible copper-clad laminates instead of using the NC drilling process. A sharp punching die set can generate smaller holes than 100 microns on thin flexible copper laminates with high though-put. Another advantage of the punching process is that it has a relatively easy applicability to RTR process. These mechanical hole-generation processes cannot make blind via holes on double-sided flex circuits. 63.3.4 Through-Hole Plating Through-hole plating processes similar to those used in rigid board fabrication are available for thin, flexible circuits. Usually, a mild cleaning process is applied prior to the chemical plating process because of thin base layers and relatively small smear amounts. Both standard electroless (chemical), copper-plating processes, and direct copper-plating processes with conductive carbon paste have been established for the seed layer in the holes. Then, suitable thickness copper is plated electrically for whole surface of the panels. Generally, a thinner plated copper conductor than a typical 20 micron version is recommended to maintain the flexibility of the circuits. A thicker copper plating than 25 micron is recommended to have good reliability. Selective copper plating with suitable masking is required for dynamic flexing circuits. Precise thickness control of the through-hole copper is required, because the electrically plated copper does not deposit uniformly on the surface of the original copper foil if the raw material sheet is not fixed exactly on a fixture. Good design of fixtures and electrodes in the plating process is critical for achieving uniform copper thickness, because a thin, flexible sheet flops by agitation in the plating bath. As a result, it is not easy to achieve very uniform copper thickness for large panels. Non-uniform plated copper will cause a lower etching yield and reduce through-hole reliability, especially for small pitch traces. As an adhesiveless copper-clad laminate does not have low-heat-resistant layers such as epoxy or acrylic resin, it provides excellent through-shapes without de-smearing processes. Figure 63.3 shows a comparison of a hole plated with an adhesive-based laminate and a hole plated with adhesiveless laminate. The adhesiveless laminate provides a sharp through hole shape compared to the traditional laminate with adhesives.
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FIGURE 63.3 (a) Cross section of through-hole of a double-sided circuit with adhesive-based laminate. (b) Cross section of through-hole of a double-sided circuit with adhesiveless base laminate.
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Microvia Hole Processes Micro via hole generation can be one of the critical items in the building of high-density flexible circuits. Figure 63.4 shows standard manufacturing processes for micro via holes, including blind via holes for double-sided flexible circuits. Several new technologies have been developed for micro hole generation on thin polyimide dielectric layers, as shown in Table 63.3. 63.3.5.1 Mechanical Microvia Hole Creation. The newly developed NC drilling machine can generate micro via holes smaller than 100 mm in diameter using special drill bits.Technically, the newest NC drilling system can generate 50-mm-diameter holes on 50-mm-thick flexible copper laminates. However, it can drill fewer sheets in a stack than larger holes with slower speeds, and its productivity becomes smaller with smaller hole sizes. An NC micro hole-punching system can also generate micro holes smaller than 70 mm in diameter on 25-mm-thick polyimide base flexible copper laminates. It has lower productivity issues to the NC drilling machines; however, multiple punch die systems can increase productivity significantly. A roll-to-roll (RTR) capability is another benefit of the NC micro hole punching.
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