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MANUFACTURING OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
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FIGURE 63.8 Microvia genterated by plasma etching. The hole diameter is 200 micrometers.
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The basic idea of the conformal mask is applicable for the plasma and chemical etching introduced in the following section. 63.3.5.4 Plasma and Chemical Microvia Hole Creation. Plasma etching and chemical etching are the unique processes used to generate micro via holes on flexible circuit materials (see Figs. 63.8 and 63.9). Both can generate micro via holes smaller than 100 mm in diameter on 50-mm-thick polyimide substrates. Plasma processes can etch all kinds of organic materials, but standard alkaline etching can etch only specific polyimide materials such as KaptonTM or ApicalTM. Special strong chemicals are needed to etch UpilexTM-type chemically stable polyimide substrates, which have high dimensional stability. Processing costs of plasma processes and chemical processes do not depend on the number of holes or sizes in a unit area.
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FIGURE 63.9 Microvia holes made by chemical etching. The hole diameter is 40 micrometers. (Source: Asahi Fine Technology.)
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They have a remarkably lower cost than laser processes, if there are many holes in the same area. On the other hand, they have several disadvantages. Generally, there are many parameters that affect process capabilities. An exact process conditioning is required for each construction of the flexible circuit. Chemical etching is a convenient technology to apply to a reel-to-reel manufacturing system. It takes a large investment to introduce a reel-to-reel system for plasma etching system. Waste treatment is another issue, especially in the case of wet chemical etching. The used etching solution for this process should be treated separately from the other chemical waste used for the wet process in the manufacturing lines. Capabilities to process materials of each technology are shown in Fig. 63.10 and Table 63.5.
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NC Drilling Chemical Etching Plasma Etching CO2 Laser Photo Polymer Process YAG Laser Excimer Laser 25 50 100 200 Via hole diameter (micron)
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FIGURE 63.10 Microvia hole capabilities of the technologies.
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TABLE 63.5 Material Availability Punching and drilling Copper Epoxy FR-4 Kapton/Apical Upilex Espanex NeoFlex Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Excimer laser Slow Yes Slow Yes Yes Yes Yes UV:YAG laser Slow Yes Slow Yes Yes Yes Yes Carbon dioxide laser No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Plasma etching No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Chemical etching Yes Difficult No Yes Difficult Difficult Difficult
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Figure 63.11 shows examples of the cost comparison of the technologies for micro-through holes on 50-mm polyimide substrates. Figure 63.11(a) shows cost comparison of micro-size NC drilling versus the excimer laser and UV:YAG laser. NC drilling cost is inversely proportional to hole size. A conventional NC drilling process has small advantages over laser processes for holes smaller than 200 mm in diameter. Figure 63.11(b) shows a cost comparison of different laser systems. The UV:YAG laser is cost-advantageous in the 25- to 75-mm hole diameter range. However, its cost increases exponentially with hole size, especially for holes larger than 75-mm in diameter. The cost of the excimer laser process is more stable. It is proportional to
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FIGURE 63.11 Relative cost comparison by hole creation technology, (a): Comparison of NC drilling cost in Excimer and YAG lasers, (b): Comparison of alternative laser processes (c): Comparison of NC laser, plasma, and chemical etch.
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hole sizes in the 20- to 200-mm diameter range. Carbon dioxide lasers show extremely lower drilling cost than the excimer laser and UV:YAG laser for the holes larger than 75 mm in diameter. It is very possible to generate more than 10,000 holes, 100 mm in diameter, in 1 min with the Galvano mirror. This is a Diamond Carbon Dioxide Laser SystemTM that has higher productivity than a traditional carbon dioxide TEA laser system. Figure 63.11(c) shows a drilling cost analysis of a plasma etching system and a chemical etching system as compared to a laser system or an NC drilling system.A unique cost feature of the etching procedure is that it does not depend on the number of holes or shapes, but on area sizes. Therefore, there are big cost advantages for circuits that have a large number of holes in a small area. 63.3.6 Wet Processes for the Flexible Materials The conveyer systems of the wet processes designed for rigid circuit boards do not work properly for thin flexible materials. They can t make a high process yield generating a lot of wrinkles or scratches, even though the flexible sheet is fixed on a leader board or carrier frame. Appropriated conveyer system should be introduced for the volume production lines of the thin flexible circuits. Several new ideas have been introduced to convey the thin flexible materials in the wet manufacturing processes. Large diameter conveyer rings with smooth surface have been employed to reduce the scratches on the soft thin copper foil surface. Smaller ring pitches, for both line direction and transverse direction, results in an overlapped conveyer system, which avoids the drop down between the rings and winding of the thin materials on conveyer rolls. Strings and thin bars between the conveyer rings are not recommended to use. These devices make small scratches on the soft thin copper surface, as shown in Fig. 63.12.
FIGURE 63.12 Special wheel conveyor system for thin, flexible materials showing high density and smooth wheels. (Source: Camellia.)
It looks like a conflict to have a stable conveyor and an effective spray of the liquids, therefore synchronized spray array with mild pressure are required to optimize the condition. A high spray pressure makes fluttering and partial distortion for the thin materials especially after etching. Standard wet processing machines are designed to process both single side and double side circuits. Well-controlled soft rubber rolls are recommended for the conveyers of the RTR wet manufacturing process to avoid damage to the circuit surface.
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