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varying thicknesses. Both processes create suitable electroless plating processes to achieve reliable bond strength on the substrates. The first idea of the semi-additive process is that the chemical and electrical deposition makes the copper layers after the drilling on the plain base film followed by traditional imaging and etching process as illustrated in Fig. 63.16.
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FIGURE 63.16 Basic high density circuit generation process flow for semi-additive method, (a) Plain film substrate, (b) Drilling via holes and plating of copper layers, (c) Etching of copper layer.
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The thin copper laminate process does not need special technology such as sputtering, therefore it is relatively easy to design the manufacturing process. Figure 63.17 illustrates a typical manufacturing process for the double-side circuits. 1. It starts from double-side laminates with very thin copper layers. 2. The first step is drilling to form the via holes. Most of the drilling technologies are available to generate the small holes. Mechanical process including micro punching works for larger holes than 60 microns diameters. Chemical etching and plasma etching could be the low cost solutions for the high hole counts designs. But they need supplemental photolithography and copper etching process. Excimer laser and UV YAG laser are capable to generate smaller holes than 50 micron diameters for both through holes and blind via holes. 3. Copper layers are plated on the whole surface to build the conductive layer in the via holes, by both electroless and electrolytic processes, using, standard copper plating process. It is important that the processes are controlled well enough to make the thin copper layers with uniform thickness. 4. A negative pattern of conductor traces for the plating resist is formed on the copper surface by a high-resolution photolithography process. 5. Further electro plating is conducted to build the required copper thickness. The plating conditions should be well controlled to have a uniform thickness for whole circuits. A smaller panel size is recommended for an easy control of the plating conditions. 6. The plating resist is removed by standard stripping process. 7. As the final process, the seed layers between the conductor traces are removed by appropriate etching process. A supplemental metal plating is conducted as the protection layer for the process, prior to the stripping process of the plating resist.
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FIGURE 63.17 Semi-additive process with thin copper laminates.
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FIGURE 63.18 Twenty micron traces on double sided flexible circuits made by semi-additive process.
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Figure 63.18 and Fig. 63.19 show examples made by the semi-additive process. The sputtering process has been developed to have thin seed layer for the semi-additive process with finer trace densities as shown in Fig. 63.20.
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FIGURE 63.19 Fifteen micron traces with 20 micron holes for 10 layer circuits. (Source: MicroComnex.)
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FIGURE 63.20 Semi-additive process with sputtering.
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1. Because it s a plain plastic film, polyimide film is typically the starting material for the manufacturing process. 2. The small size holes are generated by mechanical processes or laser process. It needs supplemental photolithography process to use chemical etching and plasma etching for this process. 3. A set of sputtering processes is employed to form the electrically conductive thin seed layer, typically thinner than one micron. To have a reliable bond strength between organic layers and conductors, appropriate conditioning including surface treatment should be conducted. The following processes are used for plating resist formation:
Electro-forming of the copper conductors Stripping of the plating resist Etching of the seed layers A process that is basically the same as the previous semi-additive process, but is able to provide finer pitches with higher aspect ratios because of extremely thin seed layers. An optimized condition of the process can produce smaller than 5 micron pitches and larger aspect ratios than 1:5.
Figure 63.21 shows two examples of fine trace produced by sputtering/electro-forming process.
FIGURE 63.21 Ultra thin patterns made by semi-additive process with sputtering, (a) Ten micron pitch traces with one micron thick trace, (b) Ten micron wide traces with 25 micron thick traces. (Dynamic Research.)
A combination of the semi-additive process with a casting technology of the polyimide resin provides a capability to build multi-layer constructions with ultra fine traces and micro via holes. But the layer constructions and the manufacturing process could be very different from the traditional flex circuits. The manufacturing process starts from the preparation of the base layer. A commercialized polyimide film is available as the starting material for the process.
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