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A casting of the liquid polyimide on a suitable carrier plate is another choice to have a thinner base layer than 12 microns. A glass or a stainless steel plate is recommended to use to manage the dimensions stable. 1. A seed layer is formed on the base layer by a series of sputtering processes. 2. A negative pattern of conductor traces is formed with plating resist by a high resolution photolithography process. The selection of the photo resist could be the key of the technology.A spin coating of the liquid photo resist is recommended for the high resolution. 3. An electrical forming of copper or other suitable metals is conducted to generate the fine conductor traces with necessary aspect ratios. 4. A set of process for stripping and etching of the seed layer between conductor traces is conducted to have isolated circuits. A gold plating on the conductors prior to the stripping process is recommended for the chemical protection of the traces. 5. A polyimide resin is coated on the circuits as the insulation layer for the next conductor layer. A photo-sensitive polyimide resin is recommended to coat to generate via holes by photolithography process. A combination of non-photo sensitive polyimide and Excimer laser is another choice. It has a flexible capability to form reliable insulation layers. But its productivity is low and processing cost per unit area is relatively high. 6. The second seed layer is formed by the same sputtering process as shown previously in process 2. A difference is that the thin seed layer have to cover the different surfaces in the via holes. 7. The same processes of photolithography of plating resist, electro forming of the conductors, stripping of the resist and etching of seed layer are conducted to build the second conductor layer. An example of the processes is illustrated in Fig. 63.22.
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FIGURE 63.22 Semi-additive process with polyimide (PI) casting.
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FIGURE 63.23 Ten micron pitch with 20 micron diameter via holes on the three layer flexible circuits made by semi-additive process with casting. (Source: Dynamic Reaserch.)
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The same processes can be repeated to form more conductor layers. Figure 63.23 shows an example of ultra high density multi-layer flexible circuits with 10 micron pitch and 20 micron diameter via holes. 63.4.3 Fully Additive Processes Several full-additive processes that can produce extremely fine traces on flexible substrate materials have been developed. Several combinations of chemical deposition process of the conductor materials and photo-sensitive resists have been tried. Unfortunately, there is no good combination that satisfies the needs for both high-resolutions and physical performances. Further improvement is required to have practical high density flexible circuits. Screen-printing has had a remarkable progress to generate fine resolutions. An appropriate combination of the screen printer and screen mask can provide smaller pitch traces than 20 microns as shown in Fig. 63.24. It could be the low cost solution for the volume production for the high density flexible circuits.The process is capable for both conductor materials and insulation materials. A screen printable conductive material could be the key of the process.
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Process Comparison A comparison of the fine line generation technologies is shown in Fig. 63.25. The advanced subtractive process can provide the best cost-performance solution when building a high-density circuit at pitches larger than 30 mm for single-side circuits and 50 mm for double-side circuits. The process does not need very different technologies from the traditional etching process, therefore the technical hurdles are relatively low and it minimizes the investment for the manufacturing equipment.
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100 mm
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FIGURE 63.24 Twenty micron pitch traces made by advanced screenprinting process. (Source: Micro Tech.)
Via Diameter (micron)
200 150 100 50 0 25 Advanced Subtractive
Traditional Subtractive
Semi-Additive with laminate Semi-Additive with sputtering 50 100 200 Circuit Density (micron pitch)
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