barcode reading using c#.net FIGURE 63.25 in Software

Creator QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in Software FIGURE 63.25

FIGURE 63.25
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Total high density capabilities of the process.
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Semi-additive process with thin copper laminates will provide reliable solutions to produce the fine line generation down to 20 micron pitches with 40 microns via holes for both single and double-side circuits. Technical hurdles are relatively low other than the control of the copper plating. The copper thickness of the original laminate is the key to producing finer traces. Semi-additive process with sputtered seed layers is able to generate the finest traces, all the way down to 5 micron pitches with 10 micron via holes, on a thinner polyimide layers than 10 microns.A well conditioned sputtering is the key to have reliable bond strength for the fine traces.Additionally, a photolithography process with photo-sensitive polyimide resin provides the multi-layer capability with micro-size via holes for the ultra-fine flexible circuits.
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PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
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It needs some more technical improvement to make the full-additive process with chemical deposition practical. Another full-additive process with high resolution screen printing will be a low cost solution for the 20 micron pitch single-side circuits when appropriate conductor materials are ready to apply. Combinations with the other technologies will create double-side and multi-layer capabilities.
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COVERLAY PROCESSES
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The coverlay construction of flexible circuits demands another special process. It is very different from the solder mask used for rigid circuit boards. Furthermore, recent high-density flexible circuits need new coverlay technologies.Table 63.7 summarizes the comparison of traditional coverlay technologies and new technologies. Traditional film coverlay has an excellent balance of physical properties and can provide high reliability, especially for long dynamic flexible endurance.
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TABLE 63.7 Coverlay Process Options Accuracy (minimum opening) Traditional film coverlay Film coverlay + laser drilling Screen print liquid ink Photoimageable, dry film type Photoimageable, liquid type Low (800 mm) High (50 mm) Low (600 mm) High (80 mm) Reliability (flexing endurance) High (long) High (long) Acceptable (short) Acceptable (short) Acceptable (short) Material selection PI, PET PI, PET Epoxy, PI Epoxy, PI, acrylic Epoxy, PI Equipment/ tooling NC drill, heat press Heat press, laser Technical hurdles Need long experience Low
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Cost High High Low Medium
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Screen printer Medium Laminator, exposure, developer Coater, exposure, developer Medium
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High (80 mm)
Relatively high
Unfortunately, it requires very complicated, labor-intensive processes, and it is difficult to introduce automatic manufacturing systems.Another big issue is that the standard film coverlay process cannot make small openings with high dimensional accuracy because of the manual handling of thin film materials. Fine openings smaller than 200 mm in diameter with high dimensional accuracy and better than 100 mm positioning have been required for flexible circuits that need high-density interconnect (HDI). Examples include SMT of CSP or chip type passive components. Screen printing of flexible ink can provide a low-cost solution for volume production. However, it cannot provide a better solution for small openings with high dimensional accuracy. The technology of photo-imageable coverlay could be the right solution to the problem of having fine openings with high dimensional accuracy along with keeping the cost down by automation. A suitable photo-sensitive material has been in demand to satisfy all of the requirements. 63.5.1 Film Coverlay A typical coverlay manufacturing process is shown in Fig. 63.26. Generally the same film materials are chosen for the base film and the coverlay film. A B-stage adhesive such as epoxy
MANUFACTURING OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
Base Film Adhesive layer Release Sheet
Drilling or Punching
Etched Circuit
Lamination
FIGURE 63.26 Lamination process of film coverlay.
or acrylic resin is coated on one side of the film covered with a release sheet. The epoxy-based coverlay films have a short shelf life in the room temperature and must be kept in a refrigerator. Openings for access windows are made by NC drilling or punching with a release sheet. The surface of traces must be cleaned before coverlay lamination takes place. It is difficult to introduce an automation system for the lamination process because the materials are very unstable after window openings are made. Manual alignment is the solution for this process unless the circuit needs an accurate registration higher than +/ 0.5 mm. After the coverlay film is temporarily fixed on the circuit, the adhesive layer is cured in a heat press or autoclave similar as multi-layer rigid boards. A suitable curing condition should be chosen carefully based on the circuit design and material conditions. Epoxy resins change flow properties significantly by thermal aging, even though they are kept at a low temperature; therefore, a detailed conditioning should be performed based on the flow properties of the adhesives. A high flow of the adhesive resin makes good encapsulation of the conductors, but it also causes a squeeze out of the resin in the openings and makes serious stains on the copper traces. On the other hand, a low resin flow causes a poor encapsulation and results low bond strength and air voids beside the traces. The selection of the press pad materials and separation films is another key factor to have good encapsulation and minimum squeeze out of the glue from the edges. A vacuum press or a vacuum autoclave helps to make good encapsulation of the conductors, eliminating voids or air traps beside the traces, especially for a thick copper foil. It takes more than one and a half hours for the whole heat press cycle to complete the chemical curing reaction of the adhesive resins, therefore the batch size and the lamination equipment have been becoming larger to make the productivity higher. But it makes the process flexibility lower. A quick press system has been developed to have a better flexibility. One set of coverlay films and an etched flexible circuit panel is hold in a small vacuum press for less than two minutes as the preliminary lamination. After that, several numbers of panels are baked in a thermal oven to complete the chemical curing of the adhesive resin. This process needs a special epoxy resin for the adhesives, but it provides a high flexibility for the small volume and prototype productions.
Screen-Printing Coverlay Basically, the same process and the same screen printer are available for applying liquid coverlay materials as a solder mask on rigid circuit boards.The solder mask materials have to have appropriate flexibility to avoid the cracks during the bending.The only difference in the processes is the
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