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A punching press similar to those used in the processing of rigid boards could be used for the blanking of flex circuits. Smaller tons are required to cut thin materials. Steel rule dies are the specialty for flex circuits (see Fig. 63.33). They can be prepared in a few days, and their costs are much smaller than those of hard tools. Their weight is also much smaller than that of hard tools and operators can manage them by hand. A typical cross section is shown in Fig. 63.33(a), a finished steel rule die is shown in Fig. 63.33(b), and some limitations on the configurations that can be used are illustrated in Fig. 63.33(c). Steel rule dies have less dimensional accuracy, lower productivity, and a shorter life than hard tools, and they need maintenance more frequently. They are good at quick-turnaround jobs and small- to medium-volume productions.Table 63.9 shows a comparison. A hard punching die is recommended for use for high dimensional requirements and large volume production. Zero clearance between the male and female dies is required for thin materials.
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FIGURE 63.33 Steel rule die for blanking flexible circuits (a):A cross section of the configured die, (b): A sample finished die (c): Limitations on shapes that can be designed into a steel rule die.
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FIGURE 63.33 Continued.
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TABLE 63.9 Comparison of Punching Dies Items Accuracy Minimum hole size Minimum slit width Minimum corner radius Delivery time Weight Tooling cost Processing cost Steel rule dies 0.2 mm for whole 3 mm diameter Zero 0.5 mm 2 4 days Light, manage by hand Low High Hard tool dies 0.01 mm for whole 0.4 mm diameter 0.5 mm 0.1 mm More than 3 weeks Heavy, need a lift High Low
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Special technology and periodical maintenance are needed when zero-clearance punching die sets are used. Combinations of steel rule dies and hard tool dies are the trend for achieving high productivity and high dimensional accuracy at a low cost. Quick-change die systems are the new trend for high productivity for small-volume productions. An NC routing process is also available for the blanking of flex circuits. However, special backing boards and conditions are required to process unstable flexible materials.
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It is very important to have accurate punching guide holes to create good perimeters for flex circuits. Unfortunately, a standard NC drilling machine does not provide accurate positions for each hole in a work sheet because of distortions during the previous manufacturing processes. An appropriate compensation for dimensional changes is necessary for each guide hole. Several punching and drilling machines that have self-alignment systems that use CCD cameras are available to ensure accurate positioning with guide holes. The latest machine has a level of accuracy better than +/ 50 mm and high productivity based on automatic x-y table. Recently, higher perimeter accuracies have been required for specific areas, such as insertion parts for the small pitch FFC connectors. The auto alignment punching machines designed for the guide holes are modified for the trim punching. Very different ideas are required to achieve a severe perimeter that allows tight spaces from conductors (smaller than 50 mm). A laser router that has self-alignment capability could be a possible solution. However, the processing speed is slow and expensive. A chemical etching process for the base could be a low-cost solution for volume production; however, the manufacturing process is very different from a standard process and a special process design is required. Its applicable construction and materials are limited, and suitable design changes are recommended.
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STIFFENER PROCESSES
Flexible circuits have many supplemental constructions other than electrical traces to optimize their capabilities. The stiffener boards are the major one of them. An issue is that it is difficult to apply full automation to the process of making stiffener boards because of the many varieties. Most of the processes are conducted manually and are labor intensive. Sometimes stiffener boards account for a big percentage of the total manufacturing cost. An adhesive film is laminated on a rigid board with a release sheet first. The boards are then routed by punching or by NC router. It is a very simple process if the adhesive material is pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). Each piece of stiffener is placed on the flex circuits with appropriate pressure, mostly by hand.The process is more complicated when a thermo-set type adhesive material is required. A temperature higher than 160 C with a pressure higher than 20 kg/cm2 is required for more than 30 min. A similar heat press used for multilayer circuit boards or film coverlay is necessary. Dummy boards should be prepared to make the pressure uniform. A heat press with a vacuum chamber or autoclave could provide uniform adhesion for irregularly shaped stiffener boards.
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