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FIGURE 8.15 Circuit for volume resistance.
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Surface Resistivity The surface insulation resistance between two points on the surface on any insulating material is the ratio of the DC potential applied between the two points to the total current between them. For surface resistivity, the measured current flows between electrodes 1 and 2, while stray current flows between electrodes 1 and 3, as shown in Fig. 8.16. Table 8.8 shows the surface resistivity values of some common fiberglass-reinforced materials.
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FIGURE 8.16 Circuit for surface resistance.
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PROPERTIES OF BASE MATERIALS
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TABLE 8.8 Additional Electrical Properties of Common Base Materials Volume Resistivity (96/35/90) (24/125) 108 1011 108 107 108 107 107 107 1010 107 107 107 107 107 Surface Resistivity (96/35/90) (24/125) 107 108 107 106 107 107 107 107 109 107 107 107 107 107 Electric Str. (V/mil) 1250 1250 1300 1200 1200 1650 1350
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Electric Strength Electric strength is a measure of the ability of an insulating material to resist electrical breakdown perpendicular to the plane of the material when subjected to short-term, high voltages at standard AC power frequencies of 50 to 60 Hz and is reported in volts per mil (see Fig. 8.17). Results can be affected by moisture content in the sample, so measurements may vary with different preconditioning environments. Unless otherwise noted, measurements are taken at 23 C, after preconditioning for 48 hours in distilled water at 50 C and immersion in ambient temperature distilled water for 30 minutes minimum, 4 hours maximum. Measurements are performed under an oil medium to prevent flashover on a small specimen. The values may decrease with increasing specimen thickness for an otherwise identical material. Table 8.8 compares the electric strength of some common fiberglassreinforced materials.
Apparatus: Electrode Laminate
Electrode
Circuit breaker
FIGURE 8.17 Dielectric strength.
High voltage source
Dielectric Breakdown Dielectric breakdown measures the ability of rigid insulating materials to resist breakdown parallel to the laminations (or in the plane of the material) when subjected to extremely high voltages at standard AC power frequencies of 50 to 60 Hz (see Fig. 8.18). As with electric
PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
High voltage source Apparatus: #3 Taper pin electrodes
Laminate .188"
FIGURE 8.18 Dielectric breakdown strength parallel to laminations.
strength, values obtained on most materials are highly dependent on the moisture content and preconditioning method. Unless otherwise noted, measurements are performed at 23 C after preconditioning for 48 hours in distilled water at 50 C followed by immersion in ambient temperature distilled water for 30 minutes minimum, 4 hours maximum. Dielectric breakdown is also performed in an oil medium. Dielectric breakdown for the materials shown in Table 8.8 is normally above 50 kilovolts.
REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. NEMA, Industrial Laminating Thermosetting Products Standard, 1998. IPC-4101, Specification for Base Materials for Rigid and Multilayer Printed Boards. Isola Product Reference Materials. IPC-TM-650 T.
BASE MATERIALS PERFORMANCE ISSUES
Edward J. Kelley
Isola Group, Chandler, Arizana
9.1 INTRODUCTION
As the fundamental building block for printed circuits, base materials must meet the needs of the printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturer, the circuit assembler, and the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). A balance of properties must be achieved that satisfies each member of the supply chain. In some cases, the desires of one member of the supply chain conflict with another. For example, the need for improved electrical performance by the OEM, or improved thermal performance by the assembler, may necessitate the use of resin systems that require longer multilayer press cycles or less productive drilling processes, or both. Lead-free assembly processes are driving the need for greater thermal reliability. This will be discussed further in Chaps. 10 and 11. Other trends are also driving the need for greater performance. These include:
Circuit densification Higher circuit operating frequencies
The density of IC packaging technologies such as ball grid array (BGA) and chip scale packages continues to increase. In turn, this requires greater interconnection density in the printed circuits onto which they are assembled. The need for increased density in the PCB impacts each of the components of the base material as well as the way in which they are manufactured. To achieve high levels of interconnection, component pitch densities result in smaller and more closely spaced plated through holes and circuit features. As the space between these holes and features decreases, the potential for conductive anodic filament (CAF) failures increases substantially. Higher operating frequencies can also impact each of the three main components of base materials. Circuits operating at high frequencies are driving the use of materials with low dielectric constants, low dissipation factors, and tighter thickness tolerances. These performance issues and the impact to the printed circuit manufacturing process are discussed in this chapter.
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