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TABLE 63.12 Key Items for Dimension Control in Flex Circuit Manufacturing Categories Materials Design Manufacturing process Key items for dimension control Base film, copper, coverlay, bonding material Layer constructions, circuit density, circuit balance Wet processes, heat processes, mechanically stressed processes
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TABLE 63.13 Critical Processes for Dimensional Control Process NC drilling TH plating Cleaning DF lamination and print Development Etching and stripping of resist Coverlay, film lamination Coverlay, screen printing Coverlay, photoimageable Lamination for multilayer Plasma etching HASL Electro- and electroless plating Baking RTR process Category Mechanical Wet and heat Wet and heat Mechanical Wet and heat Wet Heat and pressure Heat Heat Heat and pressure Heat High heat Wet and heat Heat Mechanical Importance Medium High Medium High High High High High High High Medium High Medium High Medium
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Heat means temperatures higher than 80 C.
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the various dimensional alterations, particularly as additional factors are incorporated into the process. 5. Coverlay processes There are several coverlay processes that have been developed with varying process conditions for different concept materials. Film coverlay undergoes a manufacturing process with a temperature greater than 160 C and a pressure over 20 kg/cm2. Cover coat ink withstands a screen-printing process with a drying temperature higher than 130 C. A newly developed photoimageable coverlay must be baked at over 150 C.The majority of the heat and pressure processes impact dimensional stability significantly. Additional factors, such as press pad heating, make dimensional changes even more complicated. Conditioning should be reviewed in detail for each construction. 6. Lamination pressing for multilayers Like the coverlay process, lamination pressing involves high temperature and pressure. Due to the number of layers, however, dimensional changes are more complicated because each level needs to be considered.
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TERMINATION OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
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64.1 INTRODUCTION
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Major termination technologies for flexible circuits are listed in Table 64.1. Most termination technologies developed for rigid printed circuit boards are available for flex circuits with small modifications. Surface-mount technology (SMT) components can also be assembled through the same processes used for rigid circuit boards, such as standard pick and place and reflow soldering without significant conditioning. The card-edge connectors designed for rigid circuit boards are also available for flex circuits with the addition of suitable stiffener boards. In addition, because of the unique wiring capabilities and special construction of flexible circuits, many specialized termination technologies have been developed for them. These include solder fusing, anisotropic conductive film (ACF) connections, flying-lead direct bonding, dimple contacts, and flat flexible cable (FFC) connectors. To accommodate the miniaturization of electronic products, many termination technologies have also been developed for high-density interconnect (HDI) flexible circuits. These technologies are key points in the assembly of various electronic components in small spaces, such as cellular phones, miniature liquid crystal displays (LCDs), keypad switches, antennas, connectors, microphones, speakers, battery cases, etc. It is common for several different termination processes to be used in each electronic product. Examples of applications include wireless suspension of disk drives and chip-scale packaging (CSP). These technologies use high-density flexible circuits as the interposers. Multiple special termination capabilities are required for these interposer flexible circuits. All of the termination technologies of flexible circuits have both advantages and disadvantages. No technology can satisfy all of the requirements at the same time. In general, flexible circuits have numerous wiring options, and therefore a thorough review of the technologies and the wiring requirements is required to design the appropriate termination.
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64.2 SELECTION OF TERMINATION TECHNOLOGIES
To determine the optimal cost-performance combination, one first must establish the requirements from the assembly side and the capability of the termination technologies. Table 64.2 lists the critical items that are required to design a suitable termination.
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TABLE 64.1 Termination Technologies for High-Density Flexible Circuits Rigid PWB-based
Flexible circuit-based
COB(chip-on-flex [COF])
Wirebonding Conductive adhesive Card-edge connectors Pair connectors Flip-chip bonding
Solder fusing anisotropic conductive material (ACM) (ACF) Direct bonding of flying leads Dimple contact Microbump contacts FFC connectors Nonconductive paste (NCP) bonding Pressure contact
TABLE 64.2 Critical Items in the Design of High-Density Interconnects Critical Item Objectives Termination density Permanent or nonpermanent Circumstances used Condition processed Reliability Cost Description What kinds of devices Points per cm or cm2 Number of connections in the allowed space Repeated connections or not Temperature, humidity, etc. Temperature of the application Total performance Material and handling
Termination Objectives Several types of electronic components can be attached to flexible circuits. Table 64.3 categorizes these from the termination standpoint, assuming the use of high-density flexible circuits.
TABLE 64.3 Categories of Electronic Components Category SMT devices Imaging devices Wiring devices Specialty devices Components Discrete chip components, (BGA), CSP, multichip module (MCM), bare IC chips Large flat-panel display (FPD), small FPD, charge coupled device (CCD), linear sensors, 2-D sensors, printers Rigid PWB, ceramic-based circuits, flex circuits, cable, wires, connectors Keyboards, switches, printer heads, antennas, actuators, sensors, microphones, speakers, chimes
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