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Solder Fusing Although solder fusing (Figs. 64.4 and 64.5) is not a new technology for making connections for flex circuits, it is still a low-cost and reliable solution for multi trace connections. There has also been remarkable progress in fine-pitch capability. The newest applicator, coupled with wellcontrolled solder plating on fine traces of flex circuits, can provide a 150 mm pitch connection
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FIGURE 64.4
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Flexible termination by solder fusing.
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TERMINATION OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
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FIGURE 64.5
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Flexible circuits connected to a rigid board by solder fusing.
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with the other circuit pads. A big advantage of the connection is a very low height even though the part is covered with an appropriate protection film. It is also possible to produce 30 connections in a 5 mm square, but high fusing temperatures with lead-free soldering are required. Because traditional adhesive materials such as epoxy or acrylic resin cannot survive the process, adhesiveless laminates need to be used as the major materials. 64.3.5 Wirebonding A wirebonding process similar to COB has been applied for high-density flexible circuits without serious changes. Due to the high heat resistance of new adhesiveless laminates, standard bonding materials and equipment for flexible circuits can be used (see Fig. 64.6).
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FIGURE 64.6 Wire bonding on and HDI board.
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FIGURE 64.7
Direct bonding of flying leads.
Relatively thick soft gold plating with nickel base is required on the copper pads of the flexible circuits. The best combination of the bonding machine and bonding wire with a suitable process condition can make a 40 micron pitch connection between the high-density flexible circuits and the chip device. A relatively thick polyimide film is recommended to attach on the bottom side of the wirebonding area to make it stiff. The wirebonding process could be one of the standard assembly technologies for the COF system. Numerous driver ICs for LCD devices have been assembled by these methods. 64.3.6 Direct Bonding Although flying-lead construction is not a new technology, fine-line traces created direct bonding. When a flying lead has a fine line smaller than 100 mm wide with nickel-gold plating on it, it can be processed using processes similar to wirebonding of the semiconductors. This can produce high-density, reliable connections between a flexible circuit and another circuit or device. (See Fig. 64.7). The basic idea was developed with TAB, but flexible circuits expand the capabilities and applicable areas. The small pitch direct bonding is used to assemble specific devices such as the magnetic heads of the hard disk drives and the semiconductor chip of inkjet printers (see Fig. 64.8). The thickness of the soft gold plating on the nickel base is specified carefully based on the trials.
FIGURE 64.8 Direct bonding of fine flying leads. (Ink cartridge of H.P.)
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Two layer copper foil Bump generation by etching Metal/Metal contact by pressure Pattern etching
FIGURE 64.9 Flex interconnection through bump array.
Bump Connections The microbump constructions are valuable for making reliable connections of the high-density flexible circuits with high-pin counts. Several ideas have been created to make practical termination technologies. Figure 64.9 shows an idea modified from the Bit2 process developed by Toshiba. The copper bump arrays are formed by an etching process of the two-layer copper laminates on the heat-resistant polyimide film, and they have suitable plating such as nickel and gold. The microbump array is placed on the other circuit or devices through an adhesive layer of the insulation resin. A suitable combination of temperature and pressure makes a reliable metal-to-metal connection between the microbumps and the metal pad of the other printed circuits. Supplemental etching processes after the heat press provide a special practice for building a low-cost rigid/flex construction.
Flip-Chip Bonding The flip-chip connection is one of the termination methods with microbump arrays.The technology consumes a very small space for the package because all of the connections are conducted under the IC chips, as shown in Fig. 64.10. Arrayed gold bumps make reliable metal-to-metal connections with the tin- or gold-plated pad on the other devices through the combined process of the pressure and heat with ultrasound vibration. The process can provide smaller-pitch connections than 200 micron for large pin counts. Flip-chip mounting of bare IC chips is becoming more common in the memory devices of the portable electronics. The same technologies as used in rigid circuit boards are available for flexible circuits. Adhesiveless copper-clad laminate should be used when high-temperature processes are applied. Cast-type or lamination-type adhesiveless laminates could provide high-reliability because of high bond strength. Applying underfill materials between the bare chip and the flexible substrate is recommended for higher reliability.
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