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Semipermanent connections have been required for rework, replacement of components and modules, and repeated connections. Realistic assembly processes for most electronic products are not perfect, so semipermanent terminations are required for rework and replacement of electronic components or modules in standard assembly processes to increase final manufacturing yields. Also, temporary connections are required for testing and adjusting electronic products and modules. These often need 5 to 10 reconnections, with as many as 100 reconnections required in extreme cases. Basic data on typical semipermanent termination technologies are summarized in Tables 64.6 through 64.8.
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TABLE 64.6 Semipermanent Interconnects with Flexible Circuits Objectives Pressure contacts Anisotropic conductive rubber Dimple contacts Microbump array Flex/rigid boards Flex/flex or rigid boards Flex/rigid parts (flex-flex) Flex/rigid boards and parts Application examples Facsimile Flat panel displays Inkjet printers Board testers
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TABLE 64.7 Performance of Semipermanent Technologies Connection density Pressure contacts Anisotropic conductive rubber 150 mm pitch 100 mm pitch, 200 contacts per cm2 Repeatability 20 50 Trace density of flex circuits 150 mm pitch 100 mm pitch
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TABLE 64.8 Items to Be Considered in Semipermanent Termination Technologies Supplemental parts Pressure contacts Anisotropic conductive rubber Rubber strip and fixture Fixture and ACR strip Applicators Simple tooling Simple tooling Remarks Good dimensional control required Not available for high currents High contact resistance High noise level
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Pressure Contact Termination The basic idea of pressure contact termination technology is very simple and is not new. Pad patterns of the same pitch plated with gold are generated on a flexible circuit and opposite circuits, and they are attached to each other with uniform pressure using a suitable rubber strip (see Fig. 64.14). There is no high-temperature process to complete the connection; polyester base materials are available. The maximum connection number and density depend on the capability of dimension control and uniformity of the circuits. It is possible to make 200 connections with 150 mm pitch because of the processes all take place at room temperature. Neither special application equipment nor special constructions on flexible circuits are
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FIGURE 64.14
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Pressure contact of flexible circuits.
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TERMINATION OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
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required except simple tooling, so pressure contact termination can be a low-cost solution. Unfortunately, connection and disconnection take time, which makes this technology unsuitable for multiple repeated connections. 64.4.2 Anisotropic Conductive Elastic Materials Newly developed anisotropic conductive rubber has generated several new termination technologies for high-density flexible circuits (see Fig. 64.15). The latest material has 200 mm pitch resolution in one direction. Another type of sheet rubber can have more than 200 contacts in 1 cm2. These types of rubber can make more varieties for traditional pressure contacts. A disadvantage of the technology is high contact resistance, which makes it unavailable for large-current circuits. Also, it generally has a relatively high noise level. Table 64.8 gives the basic properties.
Pitch
CW contact area H
Slot
FIGURE 64.15 Pressure contact with anisotropic conductive rubber.
NONPERMANENT CONNECTIONS
Many repeated connections are required for replacement of disposable components such as inkjet printer cartridges and biological sensor devices. These require more than 1,000 repeated connections for a flexible circuit cable. More than 1 million repeated reliable contacts on flexible
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circuits are required for switching circuits and test probe circuits. Flat-panel switches and electrical test probe fixtures for microcircuits are typical examples. As flex circuits have high-density cabling capabilities other than the mounting capabilities of electronic components, there have been serious requirements for high-density nonpermanent termination. There have been two kinds of approaches to realizing high-density nonpermanent flex circuits. The first is improvement in connection densities of traditional termination technologies. Crimp tabs, pressure contacts, key contacts, and FFC connectors could be categorized in this group. Another approach is a new concept. Anisotropic conductive rubber, dimple contacts, and bump contacts are typical examples.The technologies are compared in Tables 64.9 through 64.11.
TABLE 64.9 Nonpermanent Interconnects with Flexible Circuits Objectives Crimp tabs Key pad contacts FFC connectors Area array connectors Dimple contacts Microbump arrays Flex-flex Flex internal Flex-flex or rigid boards Flex-rigid boards Flex-rigid parts (flex-flex) Flex-rigid boards and parts Application examples Tach panel switches Keyboards Computer peripherals Industrial equipment Inkjet printers Board testers
TABLE 64.10 Performance of Nonpermanent Technologies Connection density Crimp tabs Keypad contacts FFC connectors Area array connectors Dimple contacts Microbump arrays 1.27 mm pitch 10 in 1 cm2 0.3 mm pitch 100 contacts per cm2 20 contacts per cm2 400 contacts per cm2 Repeatability 100 10 million 100 500 1000 1 million Trace density of flex circuits 1.27 mm pitch 200 mm pitch 150 mm pitch 100 mm pitch 0.5 mm pitch (150 mm pitch) 60 mm pitch
TABLE 64.11 Items to Be Considered for Nonpermanent Termination Technologies Supplemental parts Crimp tabs Keypad contacts FFC connectors Area array connectors Dimple contacts Microbump arrays Tab and housing Conductive keypads or a sheet ZIF connectors Male and female connectors (Housing) (Housing) Applicators Applicator No SMT soldering Special soldering Simple tooling Special fixtures Remarks Low connection density. Density depends on mechanical key sizes. Soldering on the other circuit. High-density traces are required on flex circuits. Suitable forming process shall be developed. Suitable processes to build microbumps must be developed.
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