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MULTILAYER FLEX AND RIGID/FLEX
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65.1 INTRODUCTION
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Originally, the basic design concepts and manufacturing processes for the multilayer rigid/flex had been developed for aerospace equipment because of the need to manage reliable wiring in limited space. More than 30 conductor layers were built on a rigid/flex for complicated applications,. On the other hand, consumer portable products such as cellular phones and digital cameras have long been demanding high-density, low-cost wiring technologies and new design concepts and new manufacturing processes have been developed for this task. A combination of rigid and flexible circuits can be called rigid/flex, flex/rigid, or rigid/flexible. However, they are called multilayer flex when flexible materials are used instead of glass/epoxy. The term rigid/flex is used throughout this chapter.
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65.2 MULTILAYER RIGID/FLEX
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Multilayer rigid/flex is basically a combination of rigid multilayer and flexible circuit processes. However, the successful accomplishment of this combination requires a high level of skill in both areas, and it is important to have a clear understanding of the abilities and limitations of the chosen fabricator before designing this type of circuit for a product.
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65.2.1 Basic Constructions There are many different concepts in the construction design of multilayer rigid/flexible circuits. Figure 65.1 shows the basic construction of a multilayer rigid/flex, both from a plane view and in cross section. Figure 65.2 shows an example of this construction with air gaps between the flexible layers, in order to have high flexibility. More than 30 layers are built in extreme cases, such as for aerospace applications. Because of the requirement for high-reliability, fine pattern designs with micro via holes cannot be used. In addition, leaded components are
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Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.
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PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
FIGURE 65.1
Basic construction of multilayer circuits (a) Plane view, (b) Cross section.
FIGURE 65.2 Air gap structure of multilayer rigid-flex board.
FIGURE 65.3 Folding type rigid/flexible circuit.
specified instead of SMT components. The design usually calls for relatively large lines/spaces and large-diameter through-holes with thick copper plating. There are several types, designated the folding type (Fig. 65.3), the flying tail type (Fig. 65.4), the bookbinder type, and so on, according to their shapes. 65.2.2 Materials
FIGURE 65.4 Flying tail type rigid/flexible circuit.
Several supplemental materials are necessary for building a multilayer rigid/flex, as shown in Table 65.1. It should be noted that there has been significant technical progress in the development of these high-performance materials.
MULTILAYER FLEX AND RIGID/FLEX
TABLE 65.1 Materials for Multilayer Rigid/Flexible Circuits Materials required Flexible substrates Copper-clad laminates (double-sided) Coverlay Bonding sheets Traditional materials Traditional polyimide films (Kapton H , Apical AV ) Polyimide film substrate Acrylic adhesive (epoxy adhesive) Traditional polyimide films coated with acrylic or epoxy adhesives Acrylic resin films Epoxy resin films Polyimide films coated with acrylic adhesives on both sides Glass/epoxy boards High-performance materials New polyimide films (Kapton E , Apical HP , Upilex S ) Polyimide film substrate Adhesiveless laminate (cast materials or laminated materials) New polyimide films coated with hot-melt polyimide adhesives New polyimide films coated with hot-melt poyimide resin on both sides
Rigid substrates
Glass BT resin boards Glass-polyimide boards
The materials must have high heat resistance and high dimensional stability to survive during several high-temperature processes. Thicker polyimide films (50 mm thick or thicker) are recommended because the basic dielectric materials are required to have good stability in the manufacturing processes.An acrylic adhesive system in copper-clad laminates, as well as coverlay film and bonding sheets that have higher heat resistance than epoxy systems, are also recommended for use in manufacturing. Adhesiveless, copper-clad laminates, made by casting or lamination processes, usually perform better in high-temperature processes.They are also valuable because they reduce the total thickness of the finished board. Hot, melt-type, polyimide adhesive systems, including coverlay films and bonding sheets, have been developed to have very high reliability and smaller thicknesses.They can reduce smear level in drilled holes significantly. But they must be processed at temperatures higher than 300 C, and therefore require special facilities and conditioning. 65.2.3 Manufacturing Process Flow There are many varieties of manufacturing processes for multilayer rigid/flexible circuits because of their complicated structures. Figures 65.5 shows a typical layer construction using
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