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SPECIAL CONSTRUCTIONS OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
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FIGURE 66.6 An example of a tab-shaped flying llead flexible circuit construction. (Source: Asahi Fine Technology).
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Plasma and chemical etching processes have little dependency on the size or numbers of openings because they are based on batch processing of the materials in sheets. In contrast, the relative costs of the excimer and carbon dioxide laser process are proportional to the size of the area being processed as well as the opening sizes. This is primarily based on the small size of the laser beam as compared to the size of the opening, and on the need to overlap with each pass of the laser in order to remove the substrate in larger areas. The carbon dioxide
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FIGURE 66.7 processes.
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Cost comparison of flying-lead flexible circuit manufacturing
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laser, however, has higher manufacturing costs than the excimer laser process because of the additional chemical processes required to remove the organic residue left on the copper surface, but it has a lower associated manufacturing cost for larger opening sizes due to faster abrasion speeds.
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TAB has been developed as the special wiring material for IC chips and liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Although it was developed separately from standard flexible circuits, they have similar constructions and they use similar materials, and can be categorized as one kind of flexible circuits.
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Basic Concepts Basic construction of TAB is the same as that of the flying-lead structure of flex circuits except for the web size used in manufacturing and the sprocket holes made for reel-to-reel conveyor systems which give TAB an appearance similar to that of cinema film. A 35-mm-wide web is the most common standard width for TAB. Webs 70 and 155 mm wide are available for larger circuits, nowadays. Because of the small working areas, TAB is good at producing fine traces with flying leads. The reeled circuits are convenient for automation of circuit manufacturing and termination. A short strip circuit made by standard manufacturing processes for flex circuits is also called a TAB circuit because it has the same functions. (Examples of TAB are shown in Fig. 66.8.)
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FIGURE 66.8 Examples of TAB high-density flexible circuits.
Manufacturing Processes The basic manufacturing flow of single-sided TAB is the same as that of the traditional prepunch manufacturing process of flying-lead construction. Basically, all manufacturing processes of TAB are designed for automatic reel-to-reel equipment. Actual processing steps are slightly
SPECIAL CONSTRUCTIONS OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
Plastic film in roll Resist coating Slit to work width Pattern generation Sprocket punching Etching Glue coating Coverlay coating Device hole opening Surface finishing Coppr foil lamination Packing in reel
FIGURE 66.9 Manufacturing process flow of TAB.
different as shown in Fig. 66.9. The process starts from a plain film, mostly polyimide film. The first parts of the manufacturing are glue coating and punching of the hole generation. Secondary, a copper foil is laminated and the fine traces are generated by photolithography and chemical etching. Thirdly, final finishing such as cover coating and surface finishing is conducted. All of the processing equipment has to have loader and un-loader by reels,. The machines should be free from manual handling to eliminate the mechanical damages on the fragile fine flying leads. The whole process has to be kept in clean rooms to avoid the contamination for the fine lithography processes. Because of the narrower material width, TAB constructions have high capability for fineline generation with good dimensional accuracy. The chemical etching process is also available to generate device holes. The technology can generate 40-mm-pitch traces as the flying leads. The manufacturing process for the double side TAB with fine flying leads and micro via holes is much more complicated. Very few manufacturers are capable to produce the products with high yield.
Technology movement of TAB The TAB manufacturing technology has been experiencing a great progress since 1980s. However, it has been facing a turning point to change the basic process drastically for the finer circuitries. TAB s manufacturing capabilities are very different from traditional flexible circuits and they cover different application area as shown in Fig. 66.10. TAB has been focusing single side fine traces with flying lead constructions. It has advantages for the volume productions of the small size circuitries because of special reel-to-reel manufacturing. In early usage, only 35 mm wide web was available to have high dimensional stabilities. But the latest RTR manufacturing equipment can manage 155 mm wide materials to generate 40 microns pitch flying leads. Several new processes such as laser drilling and through hole plating have been introduced to produce double side TAB with fine flying leads. Forty microns pitch of traces is almost the technical limit to manage the fragile fine flying leads for both of manufacturing and termination.Therefore, the technology is moving to COF (Chip on Film), that does not have device holes and flying leads, to have finer traces than 40 microns pitches. The manufacturing process and materials do not have significant differences from the
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