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PREPREG OPTIONS AND YIELD-PER-PLY VALUES
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Just as there are a variety of base laminate constructions, there are a variety of prepreg options. Each fiberglass cloth style can be treated to multiple resin contents and flow values. While the same properties must be considered for prepreg materials as for base laminates, prepregs must also contain sufficient resin to flow and fill in the innerlayer circuitry of a multilayer circuit board. Since the innerlayer circuits can vary in terms of copper thickness and circuit density, a variety of resin content and flow value options are typically required when specifying prepreg styles. Higher resin contents may be needed when filling heavy copper weights and signal layers, while lower resin contents can be used against lighter copper weights and power or ground circuit patterns. Table 9.3 shows some common prepreg styles with various resin contents and thickness yields per ply.
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TABLE 9.3 Common Prepreg Styles Glass Style 106 106 106 106 1080 1080 1080 1080 2113 2113 2116 2116 2116 2165 2165 2165 2157 2157 2157 2157 7628 7628 7628 7628 Approximate Resin Content (%) 62 66 71 75 54 57 64 66 50 55 50 52 55 47 50 54.0 45 47 48 50 40 42 44 45 Thickness (in.)* 0.0015 0.00175 0.0020 0.00225 0.00225 0.0025 0.0030 0.00325 0.0035 0.0040 0.0045 0.00475 0.00525 0.0050 0.00525 0.0060 0.00575 0.0060 0.00625 0.0065 0.0070 0.00725 0.0075 0.00775
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*Assumes a given flow value and represents thickness without filling circuitry.
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As circuit layer counts grow and via-to-pad size ratios get tighter, the alignment or registration of the layers of circuitry become extremely important. Although several material and process variables contribute to the capability to achieve layer-to-layer and via-to-innerlayer feature registration, laminate dimensional stability is one of the most important. This is especially true in high-layer-count circuits that use thin laminates, since thinner laminates are generally not as dimensionally stable as thicker laminates. An example can help illustrate this point.
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A Model of Printed Circuit Registration Capability Table 9.4 lists several of the key variables that influence an overall via-to-innerlayer pad registration capability in the printed circuit manufacturing process. The values in the table represent individual process standard deviations using a specific multilayer circuit design. If we make the assumption that these processes are normally distributed and that they are centered on the desired nominal value, we can use additivity of variance to estimate an overall registration capability. In other words, taking the square root of the sum of the squares of each individual process standard deviation gives an overall process standard deviation that can be used to assess capability. In other words, if we are trying to maintain at least tangency of a drilled hole to an innerlayer pad with a 13.5 mil hole, the pad needs to be almost 27.5 mil in diameter for material type A (13.5 + 13.8 = 27.3). The same procedure can be used to calculate clearance or antipad diameters with the desired plated through hole to clearance distance, which is also an important design consideration. It is important to note that items such as dimensional stability and
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TABLE 9.4 Multilayer Registration Variables Process s Material Type A 0.33 0.70 0.40 1.70 0.80 1.00 2.30 6.90 13.80 Process s Material Type B 0.33 0.70 0.40 0.90 0.80 1.00 1.79 5.37 10.75
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Process Variable Artwork Plotting Artwork Alignment Post Etch Punch Laminate Stability Drill Set-Up Hole Location Overall s Overall +/ 3s Drill + Capability
hole location will be significantly impacted by the specific material type, board design, and manufacturing processes used, and that actual registration systems are more complex than described here. The point of this analysis is to show the impact of laminate dimensional stability on printed circuit design. As you can see in this example, improving laminate stability from a standard deviation of 1.70 to 0.90 improves the overall registration capability from drill size + 13.8 mil to drill size + 10.75 mil, or a reduction of over 3 mil in the required diameter of the internal feature. Requirements for increased circuit density require smaller circuit features, such as internal pad sizes. This, in turn, drives the need for better registration capabilities and therefore improved laminate dimensional stability, as this model suggests. 9.6.2 Dimensional Stability Test Methods A common test method used to evaluate dimensional stability starts with a sample of a copper-clad laminate with scribed targets or holes in the four corners of the sample. Baseline measurements of the distances between these holes are taken prior to conditioning of the sample. One conditioning procedure involves etching the copper cladding off and remeasuring and determining the dimensional movement compared to the baseline. A second method subjects the sample to a thermal cycle, commonly a bake at 150 C for 2 hours. Again, measurements are taken after conditioning and compared to the baseline dimensions. A third method involves first etching the cladding off, measuring, subjecting the sample to the bake cycle, and measuring again. Each of these methods can be used as a process control tool in the laminate manufacturing process. However, these test methods are of limited value to the printed circuit manufacturer, who etches circuit images on these laminates, combines them with prepreg materials and other laminates, and presses them together under temperature and pressure to form a multilayer circuit. It is the predictability and consistency of laminate movement through the printed circuit manufacturing process, across a variety of circuit patterns and especially through the multilayer lamination cycle, that is of concern for the circuit manufacturer and ultimately for the designer who wants to increase circuit density. Multilayer lamination cycles commonly reach 185 C or higher, and normally exceed the Tg of the base material. Above the Tg, the resin softens and allows tension in the laminate to be released and is also subject to stresses from the surrounding materials and lamination pressure. Most of the movement of the laminate in the circuit manufacturing process occurs during this lamination cycle. 9.6.3 Improving Dimensional Stability Although many variables in laminate and circuit manufacturing processes can influence dimensional stability, some common techniques involve laminate press cycle optimization,
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