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Glass Transition Temperature, Tg
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Thermodynamic change in polymer from a relatively rigid, glassy state, to a softened, more deformable state. Rate of change in physical dimension (in x-, y-, or z-axis) as a function of temperature, expressed as a coefficient of thermal expansion. Can also be expressed as a percentage expansion over a given temperature range.
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Coefficients of Thermal Expansion, CTEs
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Tendency of a material to absorb moisture from the surrounding environment. Can be assessed by more than one method, including water soak or in an increased pressure and humidity environment.
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Time to Delamination
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Not a fundamental property; measurement of the time for delamination to occur at a specific temperature, e.g. 260 C (T260) or 288 C (T288).
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between Tg and thermal expansion requires further analysis. Figure 10.2 illustrates the relationship between Tg and thermal expansion for the products in Table 10.3. From Fig. 10.2, products with the same pre- and post-Tg CTE values (A and C, for example; note that above Tg the lines are parallel) differ in total expansion based on their Tg values. For example, the conventional 175 C Tg material (C) exhibits less total expansion than the conventional 140 C Tg material (A) because the onset of the higher post-Tg rate of expansion is delayed by 35 C. However, the 175 C material with a lower CTE value (D) exhibits much less total expansion than the conventional 175 C Tg material even though the Tg values are the same. Furthermore, the 150 C Tg material with reduced CTE values (B) exhibits approximately the same total expansion (3.4 percent) as the conventional 175 C Tg
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THE IMPACT OF LEAD-FREE ASSEMBLY ON BASE MATERIALS
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4.5 4 % Z-Axis expansion 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 50 100 150 200 Temperature, C
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A C B D
A B C D
FIGURE 10.2 The impact of Tg and CTE values on total expansion.
material (3.5 percent). However, with a decomposition temperature that is significantly higher, this mid-Tg FR-4 material is much more compatible with lead-free assembly than the conventional 175 C Tg material. 10.5.2 The Importance of Decomposition Temperature Although glass transition temperature (Tg) and z-axis expansion have been a primary focus of attention over the years, only with the introduction of lead-free assembly has the decomposition temperature (Td) gained significant attention. The decomposition temperature has always been important in terms of reliability, yet most people have used Tg as a proxy for material reliability. One reason for this is that other things being equal, a higher-Tg results in less total thermal expansion, and therefore less stress on plated vias.What wasn t discussed is that it is common for conventional dicy-cured, high-Tg FR-4 materials to exhibit somewhat lower decomposition temperatures than conventional dicy-cured, 140 C Tg FR-4 materials. This is highlighted by the fact that most conventional 140 C Tg FR-4 materials exhibit longer T260 times than conventional high-Tg FR-4 materials. To highlight the importance of Td, examine Fig. 10.3. The traditional dicy-cured, high-Tg FR-4 materials we have become familiar with have Td values in the range of 290 310 C. Traditional 140 C Tg FR-4 materials are generally somewhat higher, with a typical example of a material with a Td of 320 C shown in Fig. 10.3. In the typical tin-lead assembly environment, peak temperatures do not reach the point where decomposition is significant for either the traditional or enhanced products. However, in the lead-free assembly environment, peak temperatures reach the point where a small but significant level of decomposition can occur for the conventional materials, but not for the enhanced products.
TABLE 10.3 Properties of Some Common FR-4 Base Materials Glass Transition Temp. ( C) 140 150 175 175 Decomposition Temp. ( C) 320 335 310 335 % Expansion, 50 260 C (40% Resin Content) 4.2 3.4 3.5 2.8
Product A B C D
Description Conventional Dicy-Cured 140 C Tg FR-4 Phenolic Mid-Tg FR-4 Conventional Dicy-Cured High-Tg FR-4 Improved High-Tg FR-4
PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
100 95
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Weight %
Trad itiona 4 l FR-
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