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the internal copper layers, the quality of the multilayer lamination processing, as well as the type and condition of the bonding prepreg. Time to delamination testing of multilayer PCBs has become a common test for lead-free assembly compatibility. However, several factors beyond the base material type can have an influence on performance. So care needs to be taken in assessing why a particular PCB might exhibit a low time to delamination. On the other hand, if a particular type of base material exhibits low times to delamination, little can be done in PCB manufacturing to improve performance. In short, a given material offers a certain performance entitlement. Whether this performance level is realized in the finished PCB is dependent on several factors, primarily related to PCB manufacturing processing.
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10.5.5 The Impact of Lead-Free Assembly on Other Properties Exposure to assembly temperatures can have a significant effect on the properties of base materials, including the Tg and modulus properties of the material. This is particularly true if the material is exposed to multiple thermal cycles. In addition, the magnitude of the effect is dependent on the specific peak temperature experienced. Figures 10.17 and 10.18 compare the effect of multiple thermal cycles on dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) Tg for various material types when cycled to 235 C (Fig. 10.17) and 260 C (Fig. 10.18). When cycled repeatedly to 235 C, none of these materials exhibits a significant change in DMA Tg. However, when cycled repeatedly to 260 C, the dicy-cured materials show significant degradation in the measured DMA Tg, especially the high-Tg dicy-cured material. Figures 10.19 and 10.20 present similar data for measurements of the percent change in DMA modulus through multiple thermal cycles. Note that even when cycled to a peak temperature of 235 C, the high Tg dicy-cured FR-4 material exhibits a consistent decline in DMA modulus. The 140 C Tg dicy-cured material exhibits a decrease only after several cycles.
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175 Tg ( C)
100 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cycles 7 8 9 10
Dicy cured 140 C Non-dicy cured 140 C Dicy cured 175 C Non-dicy cured 175 C
FIGURE 10.17
Halogen-free 160 C Halogen-free 145 C Non-dicy Filled 175 C
DMA Tg versus multiple thermal cycles to 235 C.
THE IMPACT OF LEAD-FREE ASSEMBLY ON BASE MATERIALS
175 Tg ( C)
100 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cycles 7 8 9 10
Dicy cured 140 C Non-dicy cured 140 C Dicy cured 175 C Non-dicy cured 175 C
FIGURE 10.18
Halogen-free 160 C Halogen-free 145 C Non-dicy Filled 175 C
DMA Tg versus multiple thermal cycles to 260 C.
When cycled to a peak temperature of 260 C, both of the dicy-cured FR-4 materials exhibit rapid declines in DMA modulus. In all of these cases, the non-dicy (phenolic) FR-4 materials show little impact whether cycled to 235 C or 260 C. If anything, they exhibit very slight increases in Tg and modulus.
20 0 % Change 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 Cycles 6 7 8 9
Dicy cured 140 C Non-dicy cured 140 C Dicy cured 175 C
FIGURE 10.19
Non-dicy cured 175 C Halogen-free 160 C Halogen-free 145 C
Percent change in DMA modulus versus multiple thermal cycles to 235 C.
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20 0 % Change 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 Cycles 6 7 8 9
Dicy cured 140 C Non-dicy cured 140 C Dicy cured 175 C
FIGURE 10.20
Non-dicy cured 175 C Halogen-free 160 C Halogen-free 145 C
Percent change in DMA modulus versus multiple thermal cycles to 260 C.
10.6 IMPACT ON PRINTED CIRCUIT RELIABILITY AND MATERIAL SELECTION
In addition to the works already cited, there have been excellent studies on the impact of leadfree assembly, specifically on PWB reliability.8,9,10 These works present statistical analyses showing the impact of lead-free assembly on PWB reliability and reach important conclusions regarding the base materials. Although there is not perfect agreement among all published works, the differences typically are the result of a different focus for example, whether the focus is on complex, thick PWBs with stringent reliability requirements versus relatively less complex PWBs with shorter intended field lifetimes or less stringent reliability requirements. Conclusions include:
A minimum decomposition temperature is critical for lead-free assembly compatibility, although higher Td s are not always better. Trade-offs with other properties, such as manufacturability, fracture toughness, and so on, make achieving the right balance of properties critical. Tg and CTE values are important because of the effects on thermal expansion, especially in thicker PWBs. Most conventional (dicy-cured) high-Tg FR-4 materials are generally not compatible with lead-free assembly, or can be used successfully only in a very limited range of applications. Conventional 140 C Tg materials may still be suitable for PWB designs with limited thickness and reliability requirements, particularly when intermediate peak temperatures are used in assembly. This is largely the result of these materials having slightly higher decomposition temperatures than the higher-Tg equivalents. Mid-Tg FR-4 materials with high decomposition temperatures are viable products for many lead-free assembly applications involving intermediate-complexity PWB designs. Materials with a sufficiently high-decomposition temperature, high-Tg, and reduced CTE values are suitable for the broadest range of applications, including complex PWBs assembled at 260 C peak temperatures.
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