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FIGURE 10.22
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IST results for three 175 C Tg materials.
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THE IMPACT OF LEAD-FREE ASSEMBLY ON BASE MATERIALS
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Understanding the Potential Impact on Electrical Performance Most of the FR-4 laminate materials developed for lead-free assembly applications use an alternative resin chemistry in comparison to the conventional dicyandiamide (dicy) cured FR4s. The most common alternatives are commonly referred to as phenolic or novolac cured materials. Although there is some variation between these materials, as a group they tend to exhibit somewhat different electrical performance, particularly with respect to dielectric loss, or Df (dissipation factor). For most applications operating in typical frequency ranges, the differences are not significant. However, as operating frequencies increase toward the higher end of FR-4 applications and impedance control becomes more critical, these differences can become very significant. Table 10.5 includes the same materials as Table 10.3, but also shows the differences in dielectric constant (Dk) and dissipation factor (Df). It also includes a leadfree-compatible material designed to improve Dk and Df performance in comparison to the phenolic lead-free-compatible materials. Note that different types of measurement systems can result in different measured values for Dk and Df. Laminate resin contents and other factors also influence these properties. So when examining Table 10.5, the comparisons between these materials are more important than the absolute values reported for each material. For these comparisons, the same measurement system and resin contents were used.
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TABLE 10.5 Properties of Several Base Material Types Glass Transition Temp. ( C) 140 150 175 175 200 Decomp. Temp. ( C) 320 335 310 335 370 % Expansion, 50 260 C (40% RC) 4.2 3.4 3.5 2.8 2.8 Dk @ 2 GHz 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.7 Dk @ 5 GHz 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.7 Df @ 2 GHz 0.021 0.026 0.020 0.026 0.013 Df @ 5 GHz 0.022 0.027 0.021 0.026 0.014
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Description Conventional 140 C Tg FR-4 Improved Mid-Tg FR-4 Conventional High-Tg FR-4 Improved High-Tg FR-4 Non-Dicy, Non-Phenolic
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From this table it is clear that the improved phenolic FR-4 materials are not quite as good in terms of electrical performance in the range of 2 5 GHz as the conventional dicy-cured materials, particularly with respect to Df. However, material E exhibits thermal properties at least as good if not better than even the improved materials discussed up to this point. In addition, the electrical performance of material E is even better than the conventional dicy-cured materials, especially in terms of Df performance. This non-dicy, non-phenolic material is an attractive material for use in applications requiring not only lead-free compatibility, but electrical performance superior to the phenolic materials that have been adopted in existing lead-free designs.
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SUMMARY
While most base materials comply with the RoHS directive, the question of compatibility with lead-free assembly processes is a more complex issue. The material properties that are important for lead-free assembly compatibility include:
Decomposition temperature (Td) Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs)
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Glass transition temperature (Tg) (especially because of the impact on thermal expansion) Moisture absorption Time-to-delamination performance, which is not a fundamental material property, but is a simple method used to assess thermal stability of a composite material at different temperatures
While laminate manufacturers can easily make improvements in one of these properties, it is not as easy to make improvements without affecting other properties, including properties important for ease of manufacturing in the PCB fabrication process. Achieving the optimal balance of properties that consider the requirements of each level of the supply chain from OEM to EMS to PCB fabricator is crucial for success in lead-free assembly applications. Conventional dicy-cured FR-4 materials, especially the high-Tg dicy-cured materials, are significantly impacted by lead-free assembly temperatures, and are generally not recommended for lead-free applications. Alternative resin systems, especially the phenolic-cured FR-4 materials, have gained widespread acceptance in these applications, and where both thermal performance and electrical performance are critical, non-dicy, non-phenolic materials are also available. 11 discusses material selection in lead-free applications in more detail.
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