barcode reading in asp.net 8 4 1 Multiple-loop Systems in Visual Studio .NET

Paint QR in Visual Studio .NET 8 4 1 Multiple-loop Systems

1 8 4 1 Multiple-loop Systems
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available as fuel, some program must be decided upon for their use, since only one manipulated variable is required for cont,rol. The following situat,ions may typically exist: 1. The availability of gas is limited, thus oil flow must be manipulated in the event of gas shortage. 2. The cost of gas varies seasonally, occasionally exceeding that of oil.
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3. The cost of gas varies with usage such that, beyond a certain flow, oil
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All manipulated variables which are direct inputs to the process are flows or functions of flow. (Cascade control loops are excluded from the above, with the exception of flow loops, because the output of the primary controller is not a process input.) The process cannot be manipulated without changing the position of valves or dampers or the speed of pumps or compressors, all of which affect flow. The relationships between flow and controller output vary greatly, available pressure drop being a significant factor. The fact remains that in order to bring about control of any variable, in any process, flow must be made to change. From this definition, flow may be considered both a controlled and a manipulated variable-this coincidence was discussed in Chap. 3. The load is a combination of uncontrolled variables which places a particular demand on the control system. Like a manipulated variable, the load is flow or a function thereof. In a mass transfer operation, the load is mass flow. In a level-control loop, for example, where one flow is manipulated, the load is the algebraic sum of all the other flows entering the vessel. The manipulated variable must be makhed to the load in order to maintain constant level. In an energy transfer operation, it is the flow of energy. To control temperature of a room, for example, as much heat must be added as is lost.. Heat is lost through doors, windows, etc., and varies with inside and out,side temperatures and wind velocity. The sum of these losses (flows) is the load on the heating system. A plant is customarily designed to manufacture a certain product at specified values of rate and quality. The current rate of production is the load placed on the plant. Production rate must be specified in some way: in a chemical plant it is usually set by the rate of the principal reaction; in a refinery it is the flow of crude feed stock; in a utility plant it is determined by the gross needs of the consumers. Most pIants are designed to operate with greatest efficiency at a particular rate. Nevertheless they should not be bound to these operating conditions, because ultimately the average production rate is determined by consumer demand. There is a great deal to be gained by increasing the throughput of a plant whose products are in demand. Therefore its control systems ought never to interfere with this aspiration.
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In the particular unit of the plant where the production rate is set, load changes are, for the most part, nonexistent. But because of variations in the efficiency of this unit and in its control loops, the ffow and quality of material leaving it cannot be expected to be uniform. These variations are imposed as load changes upon the next unit, etc., through the entire plant. Thus only one unit of the plant can be expected to operate at constant load, and its output sets the load for the remainder of the plant. This unit is said to be base-loaded, while the others are load-following. Some utilities are load-following throughout, while others are base-loaded throughout. As the product is processed in one unit after another, its flow may become more variable. Thus the terminal stage of refinement encounters flow variations imposed by all the other units in the plant. Control systems on the individual units can do little to smooth these variations in flow, but they should be able to deliver material of consistent quality. Flow variations can only be absorbed by surge vessels which are suitably located and efficiently used. Plants whose load is established in the early stages of processing have a certain advantage. Load changes travel in the same direction as the flow of product, so they can be anticipated to some extent. The load of utilities is generally determined at the product end. The load wave in this case travels counter to the flow of product. The two situations are compared in Fig. 7.2. Product quality is the prime controlled variable in every unit of the plant. The term quality is here subject to broad interpretation. In a drying operation, it is the moisture content of the product. In a heat exchanger, it is the temperature or enthalpy of the exit stream. In a distillation tower, it is the purity of the distillate and/or bottoms product. In the boiler above, it is the pressure of the saturated steam; in the superheater, it is steam temperature. Each unit must be controlled to deliver whatever rate of product is required at a consistent quality if the next unit is to fulfill its function. As the product becomes more valuable (by further processing), quality control becomes more important. Quality and value are strongly
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