barcode reader project in c#.net TASKS OF A MICROPROCESSOR-BASED CONTROLLER in Software

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TASKS OF A MICROPROCESSOR-BASED CONTROLLER
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The primary task of a microprocessor-based controller is implementation of a control algorithm; however, the presence of a computer makes it possible to assign a number of peripheral tasks that are useful in process control. Some of these tasks provided in a modem control system are to: Implement classical and advanced control algorithms F rovide static and dynamic displays on the monitor
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IN PROCESS CONTROL
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Provide process and diagnostic alarms Provide mathematical functions Provide data acquisition and storage (archiving) The software to support all of these tasks is supplied by the manufacturer of the control equipment. We shall now look briefly at the nature of each task.
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Implementation of Control Algorithms
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The portion of the software that covers this task is organized into large numbers of blocks that can be connected together to solve a specific control problem. A partial listing of the blocks typically provided are as follows: analog input analog output conventional control algorithms (P PI, PD, PID) linearization lead lag dead time self-tuning There are many other blocks that have been omitted from this list because of the limitation of space in this chapter. There are also a number of blocks that process digital (or logic) signals (on/off) such as comparators, selectors, or timers, which are needed in batch control and automatic plant start-up and shut down.
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ANALOG INPUT BLOCK. The ai!alog input block is an analog-to-digital device
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that converts a continuous signal from a transducer, which is in the form of a current or voltage, to a digital signal that can be used in the microprocessor.
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ANALOG OUTPUT BLOCK. The analog output block reverses the operation of
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the analog input block by converting a digital signal, which has been computed in the microprocessor, to a voltage or a current that can be sent out to a transducer in the process in the field. Sometimes this block is called a field output block.
CONTROL BLOCK. The control block is a block for which many parameters
can be specified. The manufacturer does not give any information on the method of implementing the control algorithms; however, the reader who has read the section of Chap. 27 on the design of conventional control algorithms [D(z)] will have some idea on how the signals are manipulated within the microprocessor to implement the desired control action. The sampling period T is one parameter that cannot be adjusted in a commercial controller; it is fixed by the developer of the software. In most of the operating manuals provided with the control equipment, the sampling time may not be mentioned. Typical values of T in commercial
MICROPROCESSOR-BASED
CONTROLLERS
DISTRIBUTED
CONTROL
controllers vary from 0.1 to 0.25 sec. A controller operating with such a small T can be considered as a continuous controller for many chemical processes with large time constants. Parameters that can be selected are the controller parameters (K,, 71, ro), limits on set point and controller output, and others.
LINEARIZATION BLOCK. The linearization block is used to straighten out a
nonlinear relation. The most common example of the need for this block is in processing a signal from an orifice plate used to measure flow. The signal (pressure) across an orifice plate is proportional to the square of the flow. To obtain a linear relation between flow rate and signal, the signal is sent through a linearization block, which has been configured to extract the square root of the input signal. The linearization block can also be configured to linearize any nonlinear relation that can be plotted on a coordinate system. This aspect of the linearization block can be useful for linearizing the input-output relation to a valve that is nonlinear in behavior. In Chap. 20, an equal percentage valve was proposed as a device to linearize the relation between flow and valve-top pressure when line loss was large.
LEAD-LAG BLOCK. The lead-lag block simulates the lead-lag transfer function,
K(Tls + l)l(Tzs + 1). The parameters K, TI, and T2 can be selected over a wide range of values. If one needs a first-order lag, T1 can be set to zero. We have seen the need for the lead-lag block in feedforward control in Chap. 18.
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