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lag), e-Q . For this block, rd can be selected over a wide range of values. We have seen the need for this block in the Smith predictor control algorithm of Chap. 18. The nature of the computer program needed to simulate the dead-time block was presented as an example in Chap. 34. Figure 35.2 shows a simple flow example using some of the blocks just described. The blocks are connected together by computer code at a keyboard during the configuration of the control system. This connection of blocks is called sofnviring since it is done through the use of computer software. The actual connection between the flow transmitter and the analog input block in the controller, which is made with wires, is called hardwiring.
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SELF-TUNE BLOCK. For years, one of the goals of control engineers has been to develop a device that would automatically tune a controller, on-line, while the process is operating. Until recently, this goal was reached for some special cases by the application of adaptive control theory, a branch of control that is beyond the scope of this book. Recently (mid-1980s) a commercial device became available that uses the normal transients occurring in a controlled process (caused by set-point and load upsets) to update the control parameters of a PID controller. This device is called a self-tuner and is one of the blocks available in the microprocessor-based controller of several hardware manufacturers. When the self-tuner is first applied to a process for which no process identification has been performed, the self-tuner is placed in the pie-tune phase, during which time the
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Analog input _____-___--__--__--_______
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Delivery
FIGURE 35-2 Example of the use of control blocks to control a flow process.
process is subjected to a pulse while it is operated open-loop. The introduction of the pulse and the analysis of the transient is done automatically by the self-tuner. The outcome of the pre-tune phase of operation is the selection of controller parameters. A conceivable approach to the development of the pre-tune phase of a self-tuner is to monitor an open-loop step response and apply a tuning method similar to the Cohen-Coon tuning method of Chap. 19. After the pre-tune phase, the control system is returned to closed-loop and the self-tuner continues to monitor the transients and make changes in controller parameters when needed. The self-tuning that occurs during closed-loop operation is based on the characteristics of the transients, such as decay ratio, overshoot, period of oscillation, etc. The self-tuning algorithm, being proprietary information, is described in only a general manner in the reference manual that accompanies the control equipment. Since many industrial processes are poorly tuned, the general-purpose self-tuner represents an impressive achievement in the application of a digital computer to control technology. The reader may consult the paper by Krause and Myron (1984) to obtain more information on the development of the EXACT self-tuner of the Foxboro Co. The term EXACT stands for expert automatic control tuning and suggests that the method of tuning is based on a branch of artificial intelligence known as expert system design.
Displays
The software in a modem controller has made the strip chart recorder almost unnecessary. Through the use of skilled programming, the transients (or trends) produced in a control system can be displayed on a monitor screen dynamicaIly. As time progresses, the values of seIected variables are displayed as a function of time. The segment of time shown on the screen can be selected to be a few
MICROPROCESSOR-BASED
CONTROLLJTRS
DISTRiBUTBD
CONTROL
minutes to a few hours to show dynamic detail or long-term trends. Transients that occurred in the past can be stored and displayed again. Many process operators are more comfortable with control instruments that have a faceplate which shows bar graphs or pointers indicating set point, control variable, and output to the valve. In the older instruments, those indicators were obtained by use of mechanical motion or other means. The software provided with a microprocessor-based controller can be used to obtain a dynamic display on the screen that mimics the faceplates of traditional instruments.
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