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A very useful feature of a microprocessor-based controller is tracking. Although tracking is not needed to successfully control a system, its presence is of great convenience to the process operator. Two examples of tracking are set-point tracking and controller-output tracking. Set-point tracking is useful when a controller is transferred from manual to automatic. When a process is started up for the first time, a common procedure is to bring the process on-stream in manual mode. In this case the operator adjusts the output of the controller (which goes to the valve) until the process variable comes to a desired steady state. When the tracking feature is not present in the controller, the set point must be manually adjusted until it equals the process variable before
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the controller is transferred to automatic; the process then continues running in a smooth manner. If the operator adjusts the set point to the process variable after switching to automatic, there may be a temporary disturbance in the process variable. The expression for the disturbance is called a bump. With set-point tracking, the operator does not need to think about adjusting the set point to the process variable, because it is done automatically. In other words, set-point tracking provides bumpless transfer when switching from manual to automatic. A second example of tracking can be seen in its use for transferring a cascade system from manual to automatic. (The reader should be familiar with the information on cascade control provided in Chap. 18 to understand this example.) To explain the use of tracking in cascade control, reference to Figs. 18.lb and 18.2b will be made. In starting up this system, the primary controller is placed in a stand-by condition and the secondary controller is placed in manual mode. The means for accomplishing this is built into the software of the controller. With the secondary controller in manual mode, its output is adjusted until the temperature of the tank contents (TO) is at the desired value. Then, with the control system at steady state and TO at the desired value, the system is transferred to cascade mode by placing both controllers in automatic. Since the output of the primary controller adjusts the set point of the secondary controller, it is necessary to have the output of the primary controller equal to the jacket temperature (7 j) when the system is transferred to cascade mode. This goal can be achieved by having the output of the primary controller track the jacket temperature while the secondary controller is used in manual mode to adjust the tank temperature to the desired value. For this example, the set point of the primary controller can also automatically track the tank temperature (TO) before the transfer to cascade mode occurs. In this cascade control example, we have seen tracking used for both the set-point and the controller output.
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A troublesome problem with a controller having integral action (PI or PID) is the possible occurrence of reset windup. When the error to a controller remains large for a long time, the integral action of the controller builds up a large value of output which often approaches the saturation value of the controller output. This accumulation of output is called reset windup. When the process variable returns to the set point, the output of the controller does not immediately return to a value that will hold the process variable at the set point because the controller output has built up (or has been wound up) and must be reduced by the presence of error of opposite sign over some duration of time. Thus the transient for the control variable exhibits a large overshoot that can persist while the output signal is being reduced through integral action being applied to the error of reversed sign. Reset windup typically occurs during the start-up of a process. To gain some insight into the cause of reset windup, consider the start-up of the liquid-level process shown in Fig. 35.3 in which the level in the third tank is to be controlled by a PI controller. The valve is linear and saturates at 0 and at 0.5 as shown in
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