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barcode reader project in c#.net Measuring Element in Software
Measuring Element Scan Code 128A In None Using Barcode Control SDK for Software Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Software applications. Code 128B Printer In None Using Barcode printer for Software Control to generate, create USS Code 128 image in Software applications. The temperaturemeasuring element, which senses the bath temperature T and transmits a signal T,,, to the controller, may exhibit some dynamic lag. From the discussion of the mercury thermometer in Chap. 5, we observed this lag to be firstorder. In this example, we shall assume that the temperaturemeasuring element is a firstorder system, for which the transfer function is (9.18) T (s) where the inputoutput variables T and TA are deviation variables, defined as Decode Code 128 In None Using Barcode reader for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications. Code 128 Code Set C Generator In Visual C# Using Barcode printer for .NET framework Control to generate, create USS Code 128 image in .NET framework applications. T = T  T , T; = T,,,  T,,,, Making Code128 In .NET Framework Using Barcode drawer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set C image in ASP.NET applications. Code 128B Printer In VS .NET Using Barcode creation for .NET Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set B image in .NET framework applications. T,i,(s) Code 128A Creation In VB.NET Using Barcode creator for .NET Control to generate, create Code128 image in VS .NET applications. ANSI/AIM Code 39 Generation In None Using Barcode creator for Software Control to generate, create Code39 image in Software applications. 1 =7,s + 1
Barcode Generation In None Using Barcode printer for Software Control to generate, create bar code image in Software applications. Code 128A Generation In None Using Barcode creation for Software Control to generate, create Code 128C image in Software applications. Note that, when the control system is at steady state, T, = Tm, , which means that the temperaturemeasuring element reads the true bath temperature. The transfer function for the measuring element may be represented by the block diagram shown in Fig. 9.6. GTIN  128 Generation In None Using Barcode generation for Software Control to generate, create EAN / UCC  14 image in Software applications. Bar Code Drawer In None Using Barcode maker for Software Control to generate, create bar code image in Software applications. THE CONTROL SYSTEM
Intelligent Mail Generator In None Using Barcode drawer for Software Control to generate, create 4State Customer Barcode image in Software applications. USS Code 39 Recognizer In None Using Barcode decoder for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications. Controller and Fhal Control Element
Matrix 2D Barcode Creation In Java Using Barcode generation for Java Control to generate, create 2D Barcode image in Java applications. Print UCC  12 In None Using Barcode generator for Microsoft Word Control to generate, create EAN / UCC  14 image in Word applications. For convenience, the blocks representing the controller and the final control element are combined into one block. In this way, we need be concerned only with the overall response between the error and the heat input to the tank. Also, it is assumed that the controller is a proportional controller. (In the next chapter, the response of other controllers, which are commonly used in control systems, will be described.) The relationship for a proportional controller is q = K,E+A where E TR K, A = TR  T,,, = setpoint temperature = proportional sensitivity or controller gain = heat input when E = 0 (9.19) Data Matrix ECC200 Recognizer In VB.NET Using Barcode recognizer for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications. Print ECC200 In ObjectiveC Using Barcode creation for iPad Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in iPad applications. At steady state, it is assumed* that the set point, the process temperature, and the measured temperature are all equal to each other; thus TR, = T, = T,, Let E be the deviation variable for error; thus E = EE, where E, = TR,  Tm, Since TR, = T,,,,, E, = 0 and Eq. (9.21 becomes E =E(J=E This result shows that E is itself a deviation variable. Since E, = 0, Eq. (9.19) becomes at steady state qs = Kcc, + A = 0 + A = A Equation (9.19) may now be written in terms of qs; thus q = Kc6 + qs Read Bar Code In Visual C# Using Barcode scanner for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications. Create Linear 1D Barcode In VB.NET Using Barcode creation for .NET Control to generate, create Linear 1D Barcode image in VS .NET applications. (9.20) (9.21) (9.22) Q = K,E where Q = q  qs The transform of Eq. (9.23) is simply
(9.23) Q(s) = K,E(s) (9.24) *In a practical situation, the equality among the three variables, T, T,,,, and TR, at steady state as given by Eq. (9.20) can always be established by adjustment of the instruments. The equality between T and T, can be achieved by calibration of the measuring element. The equality between T,,, and TR can be achieved by adjustment of the proportional controller. LINEAR CLOSEDLOOP
SYSTEMS
T;(s) FIGURE 97 Block diagram of proportional controller.
Note that E, which is also equal to E , may be expressed as E = TR  TR,  (T,  T,,) or E = T;  T; (9.26) Equation (9.25) follows from the definition of E and the fact that TR, = T,,,,. Taking the transform of Eq. (9.26) gives E( S) (9.25) = T;(s)  T;(s) (9.27) The transfer function for the proportional controller given by Eq. (9.24) and the generation of error given by EQ. (9.27) may be expressed by the block diagram shown in Fig. 9.7. We have now completed the development of the separate blocks. If these are combined according to Fig. 9.2, there is obtained the block diagram for the complete control system shown in Fig. 9.8. The reader should verify this figure. SUMMARY
It has been shown that a control system can be translated into a block diagram that includes the transfer functions of the various components. It should be emphasized that a block diagram is simply a systematic way of writing the simultaneous differential and algebraic equations that describe the dynamic behavior of the components. In the present case, these were Eqs. (9.10), (9.18), and (9.24) and the definition of E. The block diagram clarifies the relationships among the variables of these simultaneous equations. Another advantage of the blockdiagram representation is that it clearly shows the feedback relationship between measured variable and desired variable and how the difference in these two signals (the

