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1 Introduction
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1.1 Microcontroller, Microcomputer or Microprocessor 2 1.2 Do you need a Microcontroller 3 1.3 Why the Atmel s AVR Microcontroller 5 1.4 Organization of This Book 6 1.5 Timing Diagram Conventions 6
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2 Microcontrollers
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2.1 Microcontroller Architecture 14 2.2 Choosing a Microcontroller 16 2.3 Developing Applications with a Microcontroller
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3 The AVR RISC Microcontroller Architecture
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3.1 Introduction 21 3.2 AVR Family Architecture 22 3.3 The Register File 25 3.4 The ALU 26 3.5 Memory Access and Instruction Execution 3.6 I/O Memory 27
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3.6.1 SREG: Status Register 28 3.6.2 SP: Stack Pointer Register 29 3.6.3 GIMSK: General Interrupt Mask Register 29 3.6.4 GIFR: General Interrupt Flag Register 29 3.6.5 MCUCR: MCU General Control Register 30 3.6.6 MCUSR: MCU Status Register 30 3.6.7 TCCRO: Time/CounterO Control Register 31 3.6.8 TCNTO: Time/CounterO Register 31 3.6.9 TCCR1A: Timer/Counter1 Control Register A 32 3.6.10 TCCR1B: Timer/Counter1 Control Register B 33 3.6.11 TCNT1H, TCNT1L: Timer/Counter1 34 3.6.12 OCR1AH, OCR1AL: Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Registers 35 3.6.13 OCRIBH, OCR1BL: Timer/Counter1 Output Compare Registers 36
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VIII CONTENTS
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3.6.14 ICR1H, ICR1L: Timer/Counter1 Output Capture Registers 37 3.6.15 WDTCR: Watchdog Timer Control Register 37 3.6.16 EEAR: EEPROM Address Register 37 3.6.17 EEDR: EEPROM Data Register 38 3.6.18 EECR: EEPROM Control Register 38 3.6.19 PORTB: PortB Data Register 39 3.6.20 DDRB: PortB Data Direction Register 39 3.6.21 PINB: Input Pins on PortB 39 3.6.22 PORTD: PortD Data Register 39 3.6.23 DDRD: PortD Data Direction Register 39 3.6.24 PIND: Input Pins on PortD 39 3.6.25 SPI I/O Data Register 39 3.6.26 SPI Status Register 39 3.6.27 SPI Control Register 40 3.6.28 UART I/O Data Register 40 3.6.29 UART Status Register 40 3.6.30 UART Control Register 41 3.6.31 UART Baud Rate Register 42 3.6.32 ACSR: Analog Comparator Control and Status Register 42
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3.7 The EEPROM 43 3.8 The I/O Ports 45 3.9 The SRAM 46
3.9.1 Interface to External SRAM 47
3.10 The Timer 47 3.11 The UART 49 3.12 The Interrupt Structure 53 3.13 The Internal Watchdog Timer 55 3.14 Power-Down Modes of Operation 56 3.15 Different Types of AVR Controllers 57
4 The AVR Instruction Set
4.1 Program and Data Addressing Modes 59
4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 Register Direct (Single Register) 59 Register Direct (Two Registers) 61 I/O Direct 61 Data Direct 61 Data Indirect 62 Indirect Program Addressing 62 Relative Program Addressing 62
4.2 Arithmetic and Logic Instructions 63 4.3 Program Control Instructions 67 4.4 Data Transfer Instructions 72 4.5 Bit and Bit-test Instructions 76
5 AVR Hardware Design Issues
5.1 Power Source 81
5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 Battery Power 82 Main Operating Supply 83 Power from Port Signal Lines 84 Voltage Regulators 85
5.2 Operating Clock Sources
5.2.1 Using a Crystal Clock IC
CONTENTS IX
5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5
Using Using Using Using
a Ceramic Resonator 87 a Quartz Crystal 88 a Quartz Clock Crystal 90 Internal RC Clock Oscillator 90
5.3 Reset Circuit 93
6 Hardware and Software Interfacing with the AVR
6.1 A Beginner s Circuit 97 6.2 Lights and Switches 99 6.3 Stack Operation in AVR Processors 101 6.4 Implementing Combinational Logic 104 6.5 Connecting the AVR to the PC Serial Port 105 6.6 Expanding I/O 110
6.6.1 I/O Expansion Using Shift Register 110 6.6.2 IIC Expanders 111
6.7 Interfacing Analog to Digital Converters 112
6.7.1 AD Conversion Using the On-Chip Comparator 113 6.7.2 MAX186 117 6.7.3 MAX186 Data Conversion and Readout 118 6.7.4 MAX110/MAX111 121
6.8 Interfacing Digital-to-Analog Converters 124
6.8.1 6.8.2 6.8.3 6.8.4 Using PWM for a DAC 124 R-2R Ladder DAC 124 MAX521 DAC 126 Data Transfer to a MAX521 127
6.9 Interfacing LED Displays
6.9.1 Seven-Segment Displays 132 6.9.2 Dot Matrix Displays 133
6.10 Interfacing LCD Displays 135 6.11 Driving Relays with AVR 138 6.12 Stepper Motor Interface for the AVR 140 6.13 Interfacing to a Serial EEPROM 141 6.14 Interfacing to a Real Time Clock (RTC) 146 6.15 Accessing a Constants Table 149 6.16 Arbitrary Waveform Generation 150 6.17 A Switch-Case Implementation 150 6.18 Implementing a Finite State Machine 152 6.19 Generating Random Numbers 154
7 Communication Links for the AVR Processor
7.1 Introduction 157 7.2 RS-232 Link 158 7.3 RS-422/423 Link 160 7.4 RS-485 Link 161 7.5 SPI and MICROWIRE Bus 163 7.6 IIC Bus 164 7.7 PC Parallel Port 166 7.8 ISA Bus 172 7.9 Universal Serial Bus 174 7.10 IrDA Data Link 178 7.11 CAN (Controller Area Network) Bus 182
X CONTENTS
8 AVR System Development Tools
8.1 Code Assembler 185
8.1.1 AVR Family Assembler 186 8.1.2 IAR Assembler 187
8.2 Code Simulator 187
8.2.1 AVR Simulator 187 8.2.2 AVR Studio 188
8.3 Evaluation Boards
8.3.1 Atmel AVR MCU00100 Development Board 8.3.2 STK200 Board 189 8.3.3 STK 300 Board 182
8.4 ICE200 AVR Emulator 192 8.5 The Device Programmer 193 8.6 AVR System Design with Components Off the Shelf (COTS) 194
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