barcode reader using c#.net Similarly, to read the SRAM, the following code segment is used. in Software

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ldi r30, $60 clr r31 ld temp, z+ ;init the pointer into SRAM to 60hex ;60hex is start of SRAM in 2313 ;now Z pointer is pointing to the SRAM ;load a value in register temp from ;SRAM and increment the address
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INTERFACE TO EXTERNAL SRAM
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On many larger AVR controllers, it is possible to connect external SRAM. This is illustrated in Figure 3.32. To enable the external SRAM access on PORTA and PORTC of the controllers as well as the ALE signal for address/data demultiplexing, the SRE bit (bit7) in MCUCR register is set to 1. The default access time for an external SRAM access is three clock cycles. This can be increased to four clock cycles by setting the SRW bit (bit6) in the MCUCR register. Figure 3.33 illustrates the normal three-cycle access, and Figure 3.34 illustrates the extended access cycle with an additional wait state.
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3.10 The Timer
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The timer in the AVR controller can function as a timer or a counter. As a timer, the internal clock signal or a derivative of that clock signal is used to clock the timer, while as a counter, an external signal on a port pin is used to clock the timer/counter. Figure 3.35 illustrates the
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FIGURE 3.32 Connecting external SRAM to the AVR controllers.
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48 THE AVR MICROCONTROLLER ARCHITECTURE
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FIGURE 3.33 External SRAM to the AVR controller access cycle without wait states.
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FIGURE 3.34 External SRAM to the AVR controller access cycle with additional wait states.
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multiplexer which selects one of the many clock sources for the timer/counter. The prescaler for both the timer/counter0 and the timer/counter1 are illustrated in Figure 3.35. The 8-Bit Timer/Counter0 block diagram is illustrated in Figure 3.36. The 8-bit Timer/Counter0 can select clock source from CK, prescaled CK, or an external pin. In addition, it can be stopped using the control bits in the Timer/Counter0 Control Register TCCR0. The overflow status flag is found in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Flag Register TIFR. Control signals are found in the Timer/Counter0 Control Register TCCR0. The interrupt enable/disable settings for Timer/Counter0 are found in the Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register TIMSK. When Timer/Counter0 is externally clocked, the external signal is synchronized with the oscillator frequency of the CPU. To ensure proper sampling of the external clock, the minimum time between two external clock transitions must be at least one internal CPU clock period. The external clock signal is sampled on the rising edge of the internal CPU clock. The 8-bit Timer/Counter0 features both a high-resolution and a high-accuracy usage with the lower prescaling opportunities. (Figure 3.37.)
THE UART 49
FIGURE 3.35 A clock prescaler for Timer0 as well as Timer1.
FIGURE 3.36 Timer/Counter0 block diagram.
3.11 The UART
Figure 3.38 illustrates the block diagram of the UART transmitter section. Data transmission is initiated by writing the data to be transmitted to the UART I/O Data Register, UDR. Data is transferred from UDR to the Transmit shift register when:
50 THE AVR MICROCONTROLLER ARCHITECTURE
FIGURE 3.37 Timer/Counter1 block diagram.
A new character has been written to UDR after the stop bit from the previous character has been shifted out. The shift register is loaded immediately. A new character has been written to UDR before the stop bit from the previous character has been shifted out. The shift register is loaded when the stop bit of the character currently being transmitted has been shifted out. If the 10(11)-bit Transmitter shift register is empty, data is transferred from UDR to the shift register. At this time the UDRE (UART Data Register Empty) bit in the UART Status Register, USR, is set. When this bit is set to 1, the UART is ready to receive the next character. At the same time as the data is transferred from UDR to the 10(11)-bit shift register, bit 0 of the shift register is cleared (start bit) and bit 9 or 10 is set (stop bit). If a 9-bit data word is selected (the CHR9 bit in the UART Control Register, UCR is set), the TXB8 bit in UCR is transferred to bit 9 in the Transmit shift register. On the Baud Rate clock following the transfer operation to the shift register, the start bit is shifted out on the TXD pin. Then follows the data, LSB first. When the stop bit has been shifted out, the shift register is loaded if any new data has been written to the UDR during the transmission. During loading, UDRE is set to 1. If there is no new data in the
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