read barcode from image c#.net RTS VOLTAGE VARIATION AS A FUNCTION OF LOAD ZENER VOLTAGE CURRENT BEING DRAWN COMMENTS in Software

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86 AVR HARDWARE DESIGN ISSUES
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10 uF 5.1V GND
FIGURE 5.3 A super-simple power supply circuit for the AVR processor powered by the RTS signal pin of the RS-232 port and using a zener diode.
They are ideally suited for use in battery-powered systems. Furthermore, the quiescent current of the LP2950/LP2951 increases only slightly at higher dropout voltage. These are the most popular three-terminal micropower regulators. More information is available at this Web site: www.national.com/pf/LP/LP2950.html An LP2950 is also well suited for regulating voltage from the RS-232 signal pins instead of using the zener diode configuration as illustrated in Figure 5.3. Table 5.3 illustrates a variety of micropower regulators. Some of these are switching regulators. The step-up type of switching regulators have an advantage that they can be used with batteries with lesser input voltage than required at the output.
5.2 Operating Clock Sources
Providing a clock source to the AVR processor is another important design process. The processor clock frequency determines the rate at which the programs will execute. On the AVR, most instructions execute in one clock cycle, some take two clocks, and for some high-end AVR processors, a few instructions also take four or five clock cycles. The AVR processor clock can be operated with a variety of components. Many AVR processors are available with an internal RC oscillator. If the application does not demand timing accuracies, and if the nominal clock frequency of 1 MHz at 5 V is sufficient for the application, then this option can be utilized. Otherwise the internal clock generator with an external timing component such as a quartz crystal or a ceramic resonator can be used. If available, even an external TTL-level clock signal can be used to clock the processor.
USING A CRYSTAL CLOCK IC
A crystal clock is an integrated circuit available in 8- or 14-pin, DIP, or SMD package options. It contains all the components, active as well as the quartz crystal component, and just requires a supply voltage for operation. When using a crystal clock IC to drive the
OPERATING CLOCK SOURCES 87
TABLE 5-3 COMPONENT
A SELECTION OF MICROPOWER VOLTAGE REGULATORS V OUT QUIESCENT CURRENT COMMENTS
MAX667 MAX639 MAX630 LP2950-5.0 LP2980-5.0
1.3 V to 16 V 5.0 V V in to 18 V 5.0 V 5.0 V
20 A 10 A 70 A 40 A 65 A
8 pins, linear regulator 8 pins, switching regulator 8 pins, switching step-up regulator 3 pin, linear regulator 5 pin, ultralow dropout linear regulator
clock input of the AVR processor, the clock signal is applied to the X1 input pin of the AVR processor. The advantages of using a clock crystal IC are:
1. 2. 3. 4.
Industry standard package CMOS/TTL output 3.3-V operation available Large fanout capability More details are available at this manufacturer s Web site: www.ndk.com/products/guide.htm Figure 5.4 illustrates an 8-pin crystal clock and pinout.
USING A CERAMIC RESONATOR
For low-cost applications, a ceramic resonator is an attractive proposition. Ceramic resonators are three terminal components with the resonant components in a single package as illustrated in Figure 5.5. Figure 5.6 illustrates how a ceramic resonator can be connected to the oscillator pins of the AVR processor. No other component is required for the oscillator. The advantages of a ceramic resonator are:
1. 2. 3. 4.
Oscillation circuit does not require any additional capacitors Wide frequency range of resonators are available Small mechanical profile No external adjustment required Typical operating characteristics of a ceramic resonator are:
1. 2. 3. 4.
Frequency range: 2.0 to 60 MHz Initial frequency tolerance: .5% Frequency Stability: .3% Frequency aging: .3% over 10 years time
88 AVR HARDWARE DESIGN ISSUES
4 (+5V)
3 (OUTPUT)
1 (NC)
2 (GND)
FIGURE 5.4 Crystal oscillator.
FIGURE 5.5 Ceramic resonator.
Ceramic resonators data sheets are available at the following Web sites: www.token.com.tw/reson.htm www.cirkit.co.uk/cirkit/PDFs/p16e9.pdf
USING A QUARTZ CRYSTAL
Using a quartz crystal is the most popular option. These are widely available and work without any problems. They require two additional capacitors and recommended values are between 22 pf and 33 pf to help start oscillations. The quartz crystals have a high Q (of the order of 10000 or more) and it takes some time for the oscillations to build up. This time is called start-up time and is of the order or 5 ms to 20 ms. Figure 5.7 illustrates how to connect a quartz crystal to the oscillator pins of the AVR processor. If the clock signal is required for an external device, up to 1 HC type buffer or an inverter can be connected to the X2 pin of the processor. When using an external crystal or resonator and in case of oscillation start-up problems, the oscillator start-up time should be investigated. Figure 5.8 illustrates the oscillator start-up time when power is applied to the AVR processor. The start-up time in this case is about 20 ms.
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