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94 AVR HARDWARE DESIGN ISSUES
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TABLE 5-5 VARIATION OF INTERNAL RC OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY WITH SUPPLY VOLTAGE VCC(V) FREQ (KHZ) VCC(V) FREQ (KHZ) VCC(V) FREQ (KHZ)
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timeout period (called power-on reset period), the processor starts executing program memory code. Figure 5.14 illustrates the simplest reset circuit using just a capacitor and a shunt switch for external reset. The reset pin of the AVR processor has an internal resistor of about 100Kohm value between the reset pin and the Vcc supply voltage pin, and so any external resistor is not required. The capacitor is required to debounce the switch when it is pressed and released. Figure 5.15 illustrates the signal on the reset pin of an AVR processor when the power is switched on. The processor is executing a program to generate pulses on the PORTB pins. The PORTB pins start pulsing after about 15 ms after the reset signal deactivates. This compares well with the datasheet specification for the timeout delay of 16 ms typically. If the power supply voltage rises too slowly, then the rest can be extended by holding the external reset pin low for a longer time. This can be done by choosing either a large time constant RC circuit connected to the RESET pin or using an external reset. If the power supply rises too slowly, the internal reset circuit may not be able to produce the proper system reset. An external reset generator circuit, often called a supervisory circuit, is useful for such needs. Some of the popular supervisory circuits are listed below. Some of them offer additional functions as well.
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1. Dallas Semiconductor Corp:DS1236. 16-pin MicroManager chip. Active high and low
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reset, power fail signals.
RESET CIRCUIT 95
AVR Processor
0.1 uF
FIGURE 5.14 A simple reset circuit.
Port B7 as output
RST signal on pin 1 of AT90S2313
FIGURE 5.15 RST signal and the start of the program execution on an AVR processor. 2. Dallas Semiconductor Corp: DS1233. 3-pin reset generator. 350-ms pulse after Vcc
supply voltage stabilizes. (Figure 5.16.)
3. Maxim Integrated Products Corp: MAX690 4. Maxim Integrated Products Corp: MAX809 5. Xicor Inc: X5045. Reset generator, 512 bytes of EEPROM, watchdog timer. 8-pin DIP.
96 AVR HARDWARE DESIGN ISSUES
Vcc Vcc RST RST DS1233 AVR Processor
0.001 uF
FIGURE 5.16 Using the DS1233 with an AVR processor.
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE INTERFACING WITH THE AVR
his chapter deals with actually putting the AVR processor to some use. It shows how to connect the AVR processor to many I/O devices such as switches, LEDs, displays, ADCs, DACs, motors, etc. To be able to do anything useful with a microcontroller, it needs the combination of appropriate hardware and suitable driver software. So the hardware and software for an embedded application for which the AVR processor could be used are tightly linked, and both of these aspects of a complete system design need to be considered together. So let s get started and build our first supersimple circuit that will light up an LED. Trivial as it may seem, it nevertheless provides a lot of confidence to a beginner.
6.1 A Beginner s Circuit
If you are new to AVR processors, you probably want to build a simple circuit and run a program that does something. Nothing better than lighting up a LED. The circuit presented here and the code that runs on the processor does just that. There are three aspects to this simple starting step:
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98 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE INTERFACING WITH THE AVR
1. Build the hardware on a general-purpose PCB. 2. Write the accompanying code and assemble it on a PC. 3. Program the AT90S1200 processor and plug it into your PCB.
You also need a 5-V power supply or at least three 1.5-V cells arranged in series to get about 4.5 V which is suitable for running this circuit. , Figure 6.1 illustrates the circuit diagram. The circuit is not fancy at all. After you put the programmed chip into the socket and power the circuit, the LED should glow. Now press the switch connected to the reset pin and the LED should be turned off. Release the switch and the LED should glow again. This indicates that the program is running and it is the program that is lighting up the LED. The circuit operates at 4 MHz using the external crystal. If you have a AT90S1200A part, then the oscillator components are not required and you can omit the crystal and the 22-pF capacitors. The AT90S1200A has the internal RC oscillator clock enabled, and the processor then runs at about 1 MHz at 5-V supply voltage. The clock speed is not critical in this particular case. The following program is also available on the CD in the code directory as file ledlight.asm.
;ledlight.asm ;A beginner s program ;lights up an LED on pin ;LED is arranged to sink ;assembled using Atmel s ;the following .inc file ;this assembly program .include 1200def.inc .cseg .org 0
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