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PORTB0 current into the PORTB0 pin avrasm assembler. should be placed in the same directory as
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+5V AT90S1200 .1 uF Vcc(20) PB0(12) RESET(1) .1 uF X2(4) X1(5) 4 MHz 22 pF 22 pF Gnd(10) 470 Ohm
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Figure 6.1 A simple introductory circuit to light an LED.
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LIGHTS AND SWITCHES 99
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rjmp RESET rjmp RESET rjmp RESET RESET: ldi r16, 0b11111111 out DDRB, r16 loopit: ldi r16, 0 out PORTB, r16
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;Reset Handle
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;load register r16 with all 1 s ;configure PORT B for all outputs ;load register r16 with all 0 s ;output the contents of r16 ;on PORTB ;Thus PORTB0 pin is at logic 0 ;as well as all the other PORTB ;pins. This enables the current ;through the LED to flow into ;PORTB0 pin and the LED lights up
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rjmp loopit
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6.2 Lights and Switches
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Now that we have built a simple beginner s circuit, let s add some input components to the circuit. The simplest input device is a switch. Figure 6.2 illustrates the circuit. The output devices, namely the LEDs, are connected to the PORTB pins, and the input devices, the switches, are connected to the PORTD pins. This keeps our code quite simple. Also, the LEDs and the switches are arranged in a logically symmetrical order and in our code, we map each switch to an LED. To keep code simple, let s map switch on PORTD0 pin to the LED on PORTB0 and so on. What we want to do is to simply record the state of the switches and copy the state to the corresponding LED. So if we press a switch, thereby putting a logic 0 on the
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+5V +5V .1 uF Vcc(20) RESET(1) AT90S1200 PB0(12) 470 Ohm .1 uF PB1(13) 470 Ohm PB2(14) PD0(2) PD1(3) 470 Ohm PB3(15) 4 MHz PD2(6) PD3(7) X1(5) Gnd(10) 22 pF X2(4) 470 Ohm
22 pF +5V
Figure 6.2 Controlling LEDs with switches.
100 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE INTERFACING WITH THE AVR
corresponding PORTD pin, we output logic 0 on the matching LED on the PORTB pin. Thus a LED will glow if you press the corresponding switch, and when you release the switch, the LED will stop glowing. Each port on the AVR processor has three I/O registers associated with it. These registers are called Data Direction register, Output Latch register, and input buffer. These are referred to as DDRx, PORTx, and PINx respectively. So, for portb, these I/O registers are called DDRB, PORTB, and PINB. To output data onto a PORTB pin, you write to the PORTB, and to read data from a PORTB pin, you read the PINB buffer. The following program is also available on the CD in the code directory as file ledswich.asm.
;ledswich.asm ;4 LEDs on PORTB, 4 switches on PORTD ;PORTD0 SWITCH - > PORTB0 LED ;PORTD1 SWITCH - > PORTB1 LED ;PORTD2 SWITCH - > PORTB2 LED ;PORTD3 SWITCH - > PORTB3 LED ;Press one or more switches and corresponding LEDs will lightup ;assembled using Atmel s avrasm assembler. ;the following .inc file should be placed in the same directory as ;this assembly program .include 1200def.inc .cseg .org 0 rjmp RESET ;Reset Handle rjmp RESET rjmp RESET RESET: ldi r16, 0b11111111 ;load register r16 with all 1 s out DDRB, r16 ;configure PORT B for all outputs ldi r16, 0b00000000 ;load register r16 with all 0 s out DDRD, r16 ;configure PORTD for all inputs loopit: in r16, PIND ;read the state of the pin on PORTD ;into r16 register out PORTB, r16 ;and copy it to PORTB rjmp loopit
The above piece of code shows how to read a switch and light up an LED. However, the switch interfacing is not proper. Typically, a switch, being a mechanical device, doesn t make a clean contact when it is pressed or released. Figure 6.3 illustrates the signal bounce when a mechanical switch is released. Similar bounce occurs when a switch is pressed. The bounce can last for several milliseconds as illustrated in the figure. Comparatively, the processor executes instructions much faster, up to 1000 times faster or even more. Given such a disparity, if a program were to read a switch and decide to take some action if it is pressed, then even for a single-switch press, it will end up taking the action many, many times. One cure for this problem is to use external damping components such as an RC delay circuit. A better, cost-saving method, which is more elegant, is to provide the damping in software. This software damping scheme is called debouncing the switch. The way the switch debouncing is performed is as follows: The processor reads the switch input pin, and when it detects a change of logic from 1 to 0 (for the switch configuration as illustrated in Figure 6.2), it knows that the switch has been pressed. It then calls a delay routine, which is of the order of a few milliseconds, say 20 ms (which is the
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