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Maker Code 128 Code Set C in Software Choose high-efficiency LEDs that require less current for operation, or you could

1. Choose high-efficiency LEDs that require less current for operation, or you could
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choose the largest possible series resistor to limit the current through the LED for just sufficient light. 2. Another method to minimize power consumption is to blank off the display if the dice
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1 A B C
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FIGURE 10.1 Output LED arrangement for our dice.
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DESIGN ISSUES: SPECIFYING THE REQUIREMENT 209
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is not used for more than a certain time, say 5 seconds. Thus, if the user does not press the input switch for more than 5 seconds, all the LEDs should be put off. Of course, the circuit is alive and would respond to a switch press even if the display is blanked off. Another level of reduction in power consumption could be to automatically shut down the circuit if it is not used for, say, 1 minute or more. In this mode, the program code executes the sleep mode of operation, which shuts off everything and the processor current consumption is reduced to the lowest possible levels. The only way to revive the circuit is to reset it. The first method of reducing power consumption is hardware based, while the second one is software controlled. We will look at the second method of reducing power consumption in the section on code development. At this point we have specified the requirements for our little dice in some detail. We could argue a little more in favor of our design choices. After that, we move over to the next section describing the design in complete detail. Though we could do with 6 LEDs, for the sake of symmetry, we go in for 7 LEDs. The LEDs are arranged as illustrated in Figure 10.1. Each dot represents an LED. The lighting pattern for the numbers 1 to 6 is as follows:
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1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6:
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B2 B1, B3 B1, B2, B3 A1, A3, C1, C3 A1, A3, B2, C1, C3 A1, A3, B1, B3, C1, C3
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For each of the numbers between 1 and 6, Figure 10.2 illustrates the LED lighting format graphically. Figure 10.3 illustrates the block diagram for the version of the dice we
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1 A B C 2 3 A B C 1 2 3 A B C 1 2 3
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1 A B C
3 A B C
3 A B C
FIGURE 10.2 LEDs light up in this fashion for the numbers 1 to 6.
210 AVR PROJECT 1
Vcc +5V
RST +5V AT90S1200
+5V Sample
FIGURE 10.3 Block diagram for the electronic dice circuit.
have chosen to implement. In later sections, we will go through other alternative arrangements that may appeal to you, and you could choose to implement code for those designs. For now let us consider the advantages of our current design. The block diagram shows that the 7 LEDs are arranged in blocks of 1, 2, and 4 LEDs. Bunching the LEDs this way allows us to generate all possible display combinations required for the dice. We could also have gone in for 6 LEDs arranged in blocks of 1, 2, and 3 LEDs, but that would not give us the kind of symmetry the 7-LED version provides. These three groups of LEDs are driven by an output bit of the AT90S1200 processor. The LEDs are arranged such that the LED glows when the output pin from the processor is low (i.e., at logic 0 ). This arrangement is usually preferred over the alternative in which the LED glows when the output bit is high (i.e., at logic 1 ). For that arrangement, one end of the LED (the anode) is connected to the processor output and the cathode is grounded with a suitable series resistance for limiting the current through the LED. When the LED is lit by setting the output terminal to logic high, the current flows out from the processor output into the ground through the series current-limiting resistor and the LED. This is called sourcing the current. In the arrangement that we have chosen for connecting the LEDs to the processor output, the cathode is connected to the processor output and the anode is connected to the ve supply ( 5 V in our case) with a series current-limiting resistance. In this arrangement, to light the LED, the processor output is low and the current from the supply terminal flows into the processor output pin through the LED and the series current-limiting resistor. This is called sinking the current. Typically, a digital gate output (like the processor output pin) is capable of sinking more current than sourcing current. The block diagram in Figure 10.1 shows two switches marked RST and Sample. The RST switch is used to reset the processor, while the Sample switch is used to interact with the dice. Every time the Sample switch is pressed, the processor gets a random number and displays it on the output LEDs. The block diagram hides various matters of detail, like the clock frequency for the dice, the way the random number should be generated, etc., which we will discuss in the next section.
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