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17.9 Testing
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The frequency counter was tested with the help of a Wavetek signal generator, and the readings generated by the frequency counter were compared with the readings on an HP oscilloscope (which has a built-in frequency readout mode) (see Figure 17.10). The results are plotted for the 1-s gate period and are illustrated in Figure 17.11 and also
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FIGURE 17.10 User interface for the frequency counter.
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300 AVR PROJECT 8: A PULSE FREQUENCY COUNTER WITH AN RS-232 INTERFACE
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listed below.
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FREQUENCY INPUT (HZ) MEASURE FREQUENCY (HZ)
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50 100 200 500 1000 1200 2000 3000 5000 8000 10000 12000 15000 18000 20000
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50 101 200 501 1004 1201 2002 3001 4998 7999 9995 11998 15000 17997 19996
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20000 18000 16000 Measured Frequency (Hz) 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 "scope1" "scope1"
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Frequency Input (Hz)
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FIGURE 17.11 Plot of the input frequency and the measured frequency of the frequency counter.
AVR PROJECT 9: SA-RE-GA FOLLOW ME A MUSICAL TOY
18.1 At a Glance
n this chapter, we build an interesting musical memory game. The features of this chapter are:
1. Describe the battery-operated musical memory game. 2. Explain the design based on the AT90S2313 processor. 3. Show how musical notes can be generated.
18.2 Introduction
This is a simple musical memory game. The toy has a set of four switches and four LEDs. It has a small piezo speaker that generates musical notes. Press a switch and a note is produced and an LED glows for the duration of the note. Press another switch and another note is produced and another LED glows. Each switch and LED is associated with a unique note. To begin with, the toy produces a random note when you press any switch, and the LED associated with that note also glows. Then you regenerate that note by pressing the right switch. If you guessed right, the game proceeds to the next level and produces two notes,
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302 AVR PROJECT 9: SA-RA-GA FOLLOW ME A MUSICAL TOY
1K Ohm +5V
AT90S2313 Piezo Speaker
200 Ohm S1 S2 S3 S4
S1-S4: Switches
FIGURE 18.1 Block diagram of this musical toy.
retaining the first note, followed by another note selected at random. You then generate these notes in the correct order and so on. If you fail, you can start again. If you succeed, you go to the next level. When you reach the last level, you have won and the toy hails you with a congratulatory note sequence. This game was designed for my son but I end up playing it more. I have been told that this game is a good test for your musical abilities. If you can remember and regenerate a long sequence of random, uncorrelated notes, you have a musical virtuoso inside you. Figure 18.1 illustrates the block diagram of the musical toy. The processor is operated at 4 MHz using an external crystal.
DESIGN CODE 303
18.3 Design Description
Let us now consider the design of the toy. The processor chosen for this project is AT90S2313, considering the amount of I/O (total 9 I/O pins required) and the software complexity. An AT90S1200 was considered, and considering the software complexity, I decided to use 2313 for this project, the reason being the need for SRAM for storing the random notes that would be played during the course of the game. These notes need to be stored for later comparison with the user response. Since the AT90S1200 is not equipped with any SRAM, it could not be employed. The Timer0 is employed to generate the notes. The timer interrupt is used to occur at twice the rate of the required note frequency. The Timer ISR then toggles the output bit, which is connected to the piezo buzzer, generating a note at the required frequency (see Figure 18.1). The selected notes were of the frequencies 440 Hz, 494 Hz, 523 Hz, and 587 Hz. Timer reload values corresponding to these notes were calculated for a clock frequency of 4 MHz. At reset and each time the user loses and starts to play again, the program creates a table of 32 entries with random numbers using the Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) principle. The Timer0, which is free-running, is used once at this time to get a seed number for the LFSR algorithm. After this the Timer0 is used only for generating audio notes. The program then waits for a key, any key, to be pressed and plays the first note using the random number table entry. The LED corresponding to this note is also lit up. It then waits for the user to press a key. If the key matches the note, the note is played again, the LED is lit up again, and the program proceeds to the next level. Now it generates the first note again and another note using the second entry from the random number table. Again, after playing the notes, the program waits for the keys to be pressed in the right sequence. If the keys match the note played, the program proceeds to the next level. This can go on until all the 32 notes have been played. If the user has been able to play back the correct sequence for all the 32 notes, the user wins the game. Else, the program starts again, creating a new random number table. Before calling the random number generator, the interrupts are disabled. The routine to generate the random numbers is a critical section of the code that needs to run without being interrupted. After returning from the random number routine, the interrupts are enabled again. Figure 18.2 illustrates the circuit schematic for the toy. The switches are connected to the PORTD pins and the LEDs and the speaker to the PORTB pins. This arrangement was dictated by Atmel s AVR evaluation board on which the prototype was tested. The switches do not have any pull-up resistors as the internal pull resistors in the PORT pins are activated. The LEDs are connected to sink current into the processor pin.
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