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maximum program memory size available to each of the three PIC microcontroller architectures, the instructions execute very similarly. You will nd it quite easy to write code for any of the architectures and port the instructions between them. Before I review the processor instruction sets, I want to introduce you to the basics of each instruction type so that you are looking at the instructions from the perspective of what they are doing. The three PIC microcontroller families have different instructions and they operate differently in a variety of situations, but they all accomplish the same tasks in substantially the same way. If you look at what s being done instead of how it s being accomplished, the actual function will become much clearer, and you will be able to leverage the knowledge you have for a speci c architecture and apply it to another. Looking ahead, I will introduce you to three of the four instruction types that I discuss throughout the book. The missing instruction type is processor control, and the reason for omitting this type is not because it is unique for each of the three PIC microcontroller processor architectures, but because they are largely the same. The processor control instructions really only provide a minimum of services, the watchdog clear instruction being the single basic and common instruction that you will have to content yourself with. The other instruction types do execute differently depending on the PIC microcontroller architecture that you choose to work with for a given application.
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Data movement within the PIC microcontroller architectures is limited to moving data from the program memory to the register space and within the register space. Typically, data moves through the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) to either WREG rather than directly between registers. Except through special hardware, data cannot be stored outside of the register space. The limited data movement types through the PIC microcontroller processor make application software development easier and faster to learn. The rst type of data movement instruction is the literal or immediate addressing in which the least signi cant 8 bits of an instruction are the actual data to be used in the instruction (Fig. 7.3). The data is a constant value speci ed when the application is developed and used as a parameter for an arithmetic or Boolean arithmetic operation. It is important to not confuse this instruction with a goto or call, even though these instructions have constant values that are loaded into registers in these cases, the constant values are loaded into program counters, not general purpose registers, like the literal addressing instructions. Literal data can only be found in the program memory space, not in the register space. Data that is stored in the register space and accessed using an address built into the instruction is known as direct addressing and is shown in Fig. 7.4. The PIC microcontroller
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Figure 7.3 Literal or immediate data is stored in instructions.
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Figure 7.4 Direct addressing speci es the register in the speci ed bank.
architectures have a number of register banking options, each of which has to be appropriately selected. The address within the bank is speci ed by the address in the instruction, similar to how the data was speci ed in the literal instructions. In all PIC microcontroller architectures the size of the bank, limited by the number of bits available in the instruction, is usually determined to be less than adequate so multiple register spaces (known as banks) are collected together to create the complete register space shown in Fig. 7.4. The selection of the bank that is currently being accessed is made by bits located in a register whose address is common in each of the banks. When you are accessing a register in a bank other than zero, you should XOR any set bit 8 or bit 9 address bits indicating the bank location of the register. For example, if you were to load WREG with the contents of TRISB, which has an address of 0x86 (which is greater than 0x7F, the maximum address in a bank), you should use the instruction and XOR value:
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