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sublw Constant
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sublw, like subwf, subtracts the contents of WREG from the passed parameter. In this case, the contents of w are taken away from a constant. Writing the operation as a mathematical formula, the operation becomes:
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w = Constant w
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Using the same subtraction operation as described for subwf, the sublw operation is actually:
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w = Constant + (w ^ 0xFF) + 1
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sublw changes the ags in a similar manner to that of subwf. To demonstrate the operation of the sublw instruction, I have modi ed the subwf InsTemplate.asm program to the code below. As I suggested for subwf, before the
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USING THE PIC MCU INSTRUCTION SET
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sublw instruction executes, try to predict the result; I think you will be surprised at how dif cult it is to do.
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movlw 2 sublw 1 movlw 1 sublw 2 ; First test case, 1 2 ; Predict the value of C after instruction ; Second test case, 2 1 ; Predict the value of C after instruction
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When I wrote the rst edition of this book, I commented that I avoid this instruction except for the case:
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sublw 0 ; ; Negate Value in w w = 0 w
This statement is probably a bit harsh because after spending some time, you will understand how the sublw instruction works and you will see where it can be used in your application. I must point out that the sublw does not work as you would expect it; subtracting a constant value from the contents of WREG. Going back to the equations above, you will have seen that the sublw doesn t subtract a constant from the contents of WREG; instead it subtracts the contents of WREG from the constant. If you are looking for the capability of subtracting a value from the contents of WREG, I would suggest that you add the negative as shown by the instruction:
addlw -47
If you wanted to carry out this same operation using the subtraction instructions, the required code would be:
movwf movlw subwf Temp 47 Temp, w
which takes up three times the number of instructions and requires one extra variable as well. Registers can have their contents incremented (one added to it) or decremented using the incf and decf instructions. (Figure 7.27 shows how data ows through the process when the decf instruction executes.) To add 1 to a register, it is incremented, and taking 1 away from a register is decrementing. To invoke the instructions, the format
incf Register, d
is used for incrementing a register and
decf Register, d
is used for decrementing the register.
THE MID-RANGE INSTRUCTION SET
Figure 7.27 The decf instruction decrements the contents of a register by 1.
To decrement the value, instead of subtracting 1 from the register, 0xFF ( 1) is added to it. This saves the cost of a subtractor built into the circuit and uses the zero ag circuitry of the adder to implement the function. The result of the increment and decrement can be stored back in the original register (d set to f or 1) or into WREG (d set to w or 0). Upon completion of the instruction, the zero ag of the STATUS register is either set (the result is equal to zero) or reset (the result was not equal to zero). The carry and digit carry ags are not affected by the operation of these two instructions. comf inverts the contents of a register; its operation is shown in Fig. 7.28. This operation is the same as XORing the contents of a register with 0xFF to invert or complement each bit. To invoke comf, the instruction has the format:
comf Register, d
0 0FF
Figure 7.28 instruction.
comf
register
complement
USING THE PIC MCU INSTRUCTION SET
It is important to remember that complementing a register is not the same as negating it. To two s complement operation negates the contents of a register, the register has to be complemented and then incremented. To negate a Register in the PIC microcontroller, the following two instructions should be used:
comf incf Register, f Register, f
To demonstrate the operation of the increment and decrement instructions as well as showing how the contents of a register can be complemented, put the following application code into the InsTemplate.asm MPLAB IDE project. Along with this, click on the line below the last line of the Watch window and in the Address column enter 20. After the value comes up, right-click on the value in 0x20 and click on Properties. In the window that comes up, specify that the contents of 0x20 are to be displayed in signed decimal format (select Decimal and click on the Signed box that comes up).
movlw movwf incf incf incf decf decf decf comf incf 47 0x20 0x20, f 0x20, f 0x20, f 0x20, w 0x20, w 0x20, w 0x20, f 0x20, f ; Start with a known value
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