read barcode in asp net web application THE MID-RANGE INSTRUCTION SET in Software

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THE MID-RANGE INSTRUCTION SET
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Figure 7.32 When the goto instruction executes in the mid-range PIC microcontroller, the 11 address bits in the instruction are appended to 2 of the PCLATH register bits to select the new actual address within the page.
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11 address bits speci ed by the instruction. The operation of the goto instruction is shown in Fig. 7.32 with the 11 bits having the 2 PCLATH bits (4 and 3) added to the address to create a full 13-bit address able to access the entire mid-range PIC microcontroller address range. This operation takes place for all mid-range chips, not just the ones with the full 8k of program memory allowed by the 13-bit address space. For example, jumping between pages in the mid-range PIC microcontroller can be accomplished by the code:
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movlw movwf goto HIGH Label PCLATH (Label & 0x7FF) ; ; Interpage goto Address within the page
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In this snippet of code, the PCLATH register is updated with the new page before the goto instruction is executed. This forces the program counter to be loaded with the correct and full Label address when the goto instruction is executed. Execution for all the instructions that change the program counter will take two instruction cycles instead of the customary one of the data movement, data processing, or processor control instructions. This is caused by the PIC microcontroller s instruction register being already loaded with the instruction at the next address and then having to be loaded with a new address and prefetch the instruction at that address before it can be executed. The actual timing for the operation is two cycles, as is shown in Fig. 7.33. When the goto (or any other program counter changing) instruction is executed, the prefetched instruction (Goto + 1 in Fig. 7.33) is no longer valid and it must be changed with the Destination instruction. Before the Destination instruction can be executed, it must be loaded into the PIC microcontroller s prefetch register so that it can be executed
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Instruction Cycle Clock Prefetch Register Instruction Register Goto + 1 Before Goto Invalid Destination Destination +1 Destination
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Goto Destination
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Figure 7.33 When the program counter is changed, the prefetch register must be loaded with the new address followed by the instruction at this address before execution can start at the new address. This process takes two instruction cycles.
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in the next instruction cycle. This is the second instruction cycle after the goto instruction rather than the rst, which would be the case for any of the other instructions that don t change the PIC microcontroller s program counter. The operation of the goto instruction can be demonstrated in the following InsTemplate.asm program:
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goto movf FirstLabel STATUS, w
Execution should not take place here
FirstLabel: ; This should be 2nd instruction to execute movlw HIGH SecondLabel ; Do an Interpage goto movwf PCLATH goto SecondLabel & 0x7FF org 0x1B76 SecondLabel: ; ; Page 3 Address Execution at goto $ that follows
The org directive speci es the address where the following instructions are placed. The $ directive used in goto $ returns the current address, so the instruction literally means jump to this address and forms an in nite loop that execution cannot escape from. These two directives will probably be used in every assembly language program you write. The call instruction (shown in Fig. 7.34) works almost exactly the same way as goto, except the pointer to the next instruction is stored on the program counter stack. There are three types of return statements in the mid-range PIC and PIC18 microcontrollers. Each of these instructions pops the current value from the top of the hardware stack and stores it in the program counter. These addresses are the next instructions that were saved when the subroutine was called or an interrupt handler was completed. The simple return instruction (Fig. 7.35) returns the stack pointer to the address pointed after the instruction calling the subroutine and no registers or control bits are changed. Another of the return instructions is retlw, which loads w with a constant value before returning from a subroutine (Fig. 7.36). This instruction is the only return
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