read barcode in asp net web application THE MID-RANGE INSTRUCTION SET in Software

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THE MID-RANGE INSTRUCTION SET
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The clrwdt instruction operation.
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PROCESSOR CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS
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There are only three instructions that are used to explicitly control the operation of the PIC microcontroller s processor. The rst, clrwdt (see Fig. 7.39) is used to reset the watchdog counter. The second, sleep, is used to hold the PIC in the current state until some condition changes and allows the PIC to continue execution. The last processor control instruction is nop (no operation), which simply delays one instruction cycle of time. clrwdt clears the watchdog timer (and the TMR0/WDT prescaler if it is used with the watchdog timer), resetting the interval in which a timeout can occur. The purpose of the watchdog timer is to reset the PIC microcontroller if execution is running improperly (i.e., caused by an external EMI upset or there is a problem with the application code which causes execution to run amok). To ensure a watchdog timer timeout (and reset) is not executed at an inappropriate time, a clrwdt instruction is inserted in the code to reset the timer before the watchdog timer timeout if the application is running properly. Ideally, the application code should only have one clrwdt instruction written into it and this should only be executed through one path (i.e., every time an input event has processed and the queue for the next input event is about to be checked). There are two purposes of the sleep instruction, which executes as shown in Fig. 7.40. The rst is to shut down the PIC microcontroller once it has nished processing the program. This prevents the PIC microcontroller from continuing to run and potentially affecting any other hardware in the application while it is executing. Using the PIC microcontroller in this manner presumes that the PIC microcontroller is only required for a certain aspect of the application (i.e., initialization of the hardware) and will not be required after this aspect. The second purpose of the sleep instruction is to provide a method of allowing the PIC microcontroller to wait for a certain event to happen. A sleeping PIC microcontroller can be agged of this event in one of three ways. The rst is a reset on the _MCLR pin
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USING THE PIC MCU INSTRUCTION SET
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The sleep instruction operation.
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(which will cause the PIC to begin executing again at address 0), the second is if the watchdog timer wakes up the PIC, and the third method is to cause wakeup by some external event (i.e., interrupt). Using sleep for either of these reasons will allow you to eliminate the need for wait loops and could simplify your software. The Parallax BASIC Stamp and the PICBASIC compiler use sleep for its nap instruction to simplify the operation of the code and to minimize the current requirements of the PIC microcontroller while it is stopped. Figure 7.41 shows how a sleeping PIC microcontroller can be awakened by an interrupt. During sleep, the built-in oscillator is turned off. When the PIC microcontroller is woken up, it restarts in a similar manner to the initial power-up of the microcontroller. This wake up takes a relatively long time (1024 clock cycles) to wait
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Figure 7.41 The instruction cycles executed when a mid-range PIC microcontroller is interrupted when sleep is active.
THE MID-RANGE INSTRUCTION SET
Figure 7.42 The nop instruction does not affect any of the internal functions of the PIC microcontroller.
for the built-in oscillator to stabilize before it resets the PIC microcontroller and resumes executing the application code. nop means no operation and is usually pronounced no-op. When this instruction (see Fig. 7.42) is executed, the processor will just skip through it, with nothing (registers or STATUS register bits) changed. If you study a number of different processors, you will nd that they all have a nop instruction. nops are traditionally used for two purposes. The rst is to provide time synchronizing code for an application; if you look at various timed routines in this book, you will see that I use these instructions to provide a one instruction cycle delay. A simple way to get a two instruction delay is to use a goto the next instruction instead of two nops. The format for this goto instruction is:
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