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USING THE PIC MCU INSTRUCTION SET
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Instruction Bit Pattern: 12345678 12345678f f f f 0110110a ffff Register Address Bus
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STATUS WREG BSR
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Instruction Operation: Reg = (Reg ^ 0x0FF) + 1;
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Notes: All Flags are Affected by this Instruction
Flags Affected: C, DC, N, OV, Z Instruction Cycles: 1
Figure 7.50 The negf instruction will two s complement ny register in the PIC18 register space.
EXECUTION CHANGE INSTRUCTIONS
The PIC18 s execution change instructions, upon rst glance, should be very familiar to you if you are familiar with the other PIC microcontroller families. The PIC18 has the btfsc, btfss, goto, and call of the low-end and mid-range PIC microcontrollers along with the compare and skip on equals (cpfseq), greater than (cpfsgt), and less than (cpfslt). The PIC18 also has the enhanced increment and skip on result not equal to zero (infsnz and dcfsnz). Along with these similarities, the PIC18 has four new features that you should be aware of (and remember their availability) when you are developing applications for it. The rst feature that you should be aware of is the goto and call instructions, which can directly any address in the program memory space. As shown in Fig. 7.52, these instructions are built from two 16-bit words and contain the entire 20 word address bits to allow you to jump anywhere in program memory.
WREG
Parm (Register for mulwf Constant for mullw)
8x8 Multiplier
PRODH:PRODL
Figure 7.51 The two single instruction cycle 8 by 8 multiplication instructions store their result in PRODH:PRODL.
PIC18 INSTRUCTION SET
Program Memory
PC Program Counter Stack ALU
Register Space
File Registers
Instruction Bit Pattern: call 12345678 12345678 1110110s nnnnnnnn 12345678 12345678 1111nnnn nnnnnnnn goto12345678 12345678 11101111 nnnnnnnn 12345678 12345678 1111nnnn nnnnnnnn Register Address Bus Instruction Operation: Call: if (s == 1) Push Context Registers; Push Next Address; Jump to Address Goto: Jump to Address Flags Affected: None Instruction Cycles: 2
STATUS WREG BSR
Fast Stack
Instruction Register/ Decode Second Instruction Register
Notes: Call and Goto areTwo Word Instructions. Each Instruction can Access ANY Program Memory Location in the PICmicro. Call can optionally do the Fast Stack Context Register Save
Figure 7.52 The PIC18 call and goto instructions provide the capability of accessing any address in program memory without the need of updating the PCLATH or PCLATU registers.
The call instruction (as well as the corresponding return) instruction has the capability, when a 1 is speci ed as the s bit at the end of the instruction, of saving the context registers WREG, BRS, and STATUS in shadow registers of the fast stack, which are retrieved by the return instruction by specifying a 1 as well. The issue that you should be aware of for the context save is that you can only save one set of values on the fast stack and the context values of the mainline are always saved when an interrupt is acknowledged. This limits the usability of the context register save to applications that only have a single deep call and no interrupts. For your rst PIC18 applications, I would recommend that you use the instruction set s single word instructions only. The only time you should be using the goto or call instructions is if you have to access a memory location outside the range of the relative branches. This range is 512 to +511 instruction addresses for the bra (branch always) and rcall (relative call) instructions and 64 to +63 instruction addresses for the conditional branch instructions that I will discuss below. The rcall instruction information is shown in Fig. 7.53. Along with using the single word execution change instructions, I also recommend that you be careful when using the $ directive and branching relative to it. When the assembler is calculating addresses, it works on a byte basis, not a word basis as it does for other PIC microcontrollers. This means that you must multiply the number of instructions by 2 to get the correct address. Consider the simple delay loop:
movlw 47 decfsz WREG, f, 0 bra $ - 1 ; Loop 47x3 instruction cycles
USING THE PIC MCU INSTRUCTION SET
Program Memory
PC Program Counter Stack ALU
Register Space
File Registers
Instruction Bit Pattern: 11011nnn nnnnnnnn
Register Address Bus
STATUS WREG BSR
Instruction Operation: Push Next Address; PC = PC + 2 + 2's Complement n ;
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