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Memory is probably not something you normally think about when you create applications for a personal computer. The memory available for an application in a modern Microsoft Windows PC can be up to 4.3 gigabytes (GB) in size and can be swapped in and out of memory as required. Few people have PCs with this much memory, and even if they did, they would nd that all the potential programs they could run on it would take up more than this amount of space. Fortunately, in a PC you can store programs and data on a disk drive and access them as required. This eliminates the need to manage how software and data are stored and accessed on the computer and makes it easy for the casual user to work with a PC. A small embedded microcontroller, like the ones discussed in this book, does not have the capability to control a disk drive or the user interface to load and execute applications. When you create an application for an embedded microcontroller, you will have to know how much memory (of different types) is available in the microcontroller and how the program and data are to be stored on the chip. For the most part, this is not dif cult, but you will encounter circumstances where you nd that you are running out of memory and either have to redesign your application or select another device to put the application on. While it may seem to be a bit of a burden when you start working with microcontrollers, it will very quickly become second nature and allow you to further customize your application to best suit the device you have chosen. There are two or three types of memory that are provided in embedded microcontrollers:
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Nonvolatile program memory Volatile variable memory Optional nonvolatile data memory
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Program memory is known by a number of different names, including control store and rmware (as well as some permutations of these names). The name really isn t important, as long as you understand that this memory space is used to store the application software. The adjective nonvolatile describes the ability of memory to retain the information stored in it even when power is removed. This is important because each time power is applied to the microcontroller, the application code should start working. The program memory space is the maximum size of application that can be loaded into
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the microcontroller and contains all the code that is executed in an application along with the initial values for the variables used in the application. Program memory is not generally changed during program execution, and the application code is stored in it using custom chip programming equipment. The variable memory available in an embedded microcontroller consists of a fairly small amount of RAM (random-access memory), which is used for the temporary storage of data. Variable memory is volatile, which means that its values will be lost when power is removed from the microcontroller. When the processor addressing modes were discussed earlier, they were primarily referring to accessing the variable memory of a microcontroller. It is important to remember that application execution does not take place in variable memory. While in Princeton-architected microcontrollers, it is possible there is no simple way of loading the memory with code when the device starts up other than having software in the main program write initial values to the variables. The nonvolatile data memory provides long-term storage of information even when power is lost. Typical information stored in this memory includes data logging information for later transmittal to another device, calibration data for different peripherals, and IP address information for networked devices. With an idea of how applications execute in an embedded microcontroller, you can look at how it is actually implemented on the chip. The nonvolatile program memory will probably be some avor of read-only memory (ROM), called this because during execution the processor can only read from this memory, not write new information into it. In the PIC microcontroller, there are four types of program memory available in devices and applications: none (external ROM), mask ROM, EPROM, and EEPROM/Flash. While these four types of nonvolatile memory options all provide the same function memory for the processor to read and execute they each have different characteristics and are best suited for different purposes. None probably seems like a strange option, but in the high-end PICmicros running in microprocessor mode, it is a very legitimate one. With no internal program memory, the device has to be connected to an external ROM chip, as can be seen in Fig. 1.13. The external ROM feature is primarily used when more application program memory is required or applications and data are to be loaded into RAM while the application is running. There are microcontrollers available with the traditional type of read-only memory program memory although they are becoming increasingly rare. This type of read-only memory consists of memory cells that can be con gured as either a one or a zero by not
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Figure 1.13 External memory connections to a microcontroller are wired similarly to that of a microprocessor.
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