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main() { int i = 0; // Event Driven Updated Initial // Application
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TimerDelay = 1sec; interrupts = TimerHandler | ButtonHandler; if (Button == Up) LED = Off; else LED = On; while(1 == 1); } // end main // Load in the Initial Button State
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EVENT-DRIVEN PROGRAMMING
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interrupt TimerHandler()// Display i and Increment TimerInterrupt = Reset; output( i & 0x00F); i = i + 1; } // End TimerHandler interrupt ButtonUp( ) { ButtonInterrupt = Reset; LED = Off; } // end ButtonUp interrupt ButtonDown( ) { button interrupt = reset LED = on; } // end ButtonDown
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This style of programming can be copied easily into the PIC microcontroller by testing the F (interrupt request ag) bits and responding to the rst one that is set. The interrupt handler, for the preceding application, would look like this:
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Org 4 Int movwf _w movf STATUS, w movwf _status btfsc goto btfsc goto INTCON, T0IF INTTMRO INTCON, INTF BUTTONINT ; Clear all other Interrupt Requests
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INTERRUPT REQUEST clrf INTCON goto INTEND TMROINT
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; Respond to the TMRO Interrupt
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INTCON, TOIF ; Output (i and 0x00F)
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movf i, w xorlw 0x00F movwf OUTP incf goto i, f INTEND
BUTTON INT bcf INTCON, INTF
; Respond to the Button Pressed
btfss BUTTON, UP goto BUTTONDOWN BUTTONUP bsf bcf bcf bsf goto ; Button Released, LED Off
STATUS, RPO ; Change Button Interrupt Request Direction OPTION_REG & 0x080, INTEDG STATUS, RPO LED INTEND ; Button Pressed, LED On ; LED Off
BUTTON DOWN bsf bcf bcf bcf goto INTEND movf _status, w movwf STATUS swapf _w, f swapf _w, w ret e
STATUS, RPO ; Change Button Interrupt Request Direction OPTION_REG & 0x080, INTEDG STATUS, RPO LED INTEND ; Interrupt Handler Finished Return to ; Mainline (the while (1 == 1) Statement) ; LED On
This code should be a straightforward conversion of the high level code, except for the button. Before jumping to button up or button down, the polarity has to be determined. When the polarity is determined, then the interrupt edge bit is set to interrupt
STATE MACHINE PROGRAMMING
when the button input changes state. This state determination really is used to help differentiate which part of the event handler should execute. Note that the event to be responded to can be given a priority, with the rst check being the interrupt source responded to before any of the others. In the example code above, TMR0 is responded to rst, even if a button interrupt has been received. The order (and priority) of event checks and responses can be selected in such a way as to ensure that no events are missed and the most important ones are responded to rst.
State Machine Programming
There are two different methods of implementing a state machine in PIC microcontroller assembly language. The rst method is to use a table such as
movf addwf goto goto goto : State, w PCL, f State0 State1 State2 ; Jump to the Appropriate State Table Entry ; Routine for State == 0 ; Routine for State == 1 ; Routine for State == 2
This method is quite ef cient for implementing a state machine because with implementing any table, execution takes a constant amount of time regardless of the value of State. The only requirement for this method is to have the state values as linear numbers starting with zero. The second method is to repeatedly test the State variable for speci c values and then executing the appropriate code. The typical PIC microcontroller code for this is
movf State, w xorlw 0 btfss STATUS, Z goto NotState0 : goto StateEnd NotState0: xorlw 0 ^ 1 btfss STATUS, Z goto NotState1 : goto StateEnd NotState1: xorlw 1 ^ 2 btfss STATUS, Z goto NotState2 : goto StateEnd ; Load the State Variable ; Test for State == 0
; Routine for State == 0
; Test for State == 1
; Routine for State == 1
; Test for State == 2
; Routine for State == 2
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NotState2: : StateEnd:
; Finished with State Machine Execution
In this code, State never has to be reloaded because the previous value XORed with the contents of State is XORed again in the next instruction when it is tested for a different value. The advantages of this method are that nonsequential values of State can be implemented. The State variable also can be done away with if this method is used, and the w register can be used for the new state value. The obvious drawbacks to this method over the previous one are that many more statements are required and the time to execute statements is different for each state s Routine. I use this code for implementing character data processing to state machines when speci c values are required. This method is superior to the previous method when a potentially large number of inputs could be received and only a few will be processed. Either method can be useful for implementing complex applications as state machines in low-end PIC microcontrollers, where single states may have multiple sources and you do not want to use the limited stack in a subroutine.
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