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* - OSCCAL may take place of PORTA in PICMicros with Internal Oscillators
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OPTION - Accessed via option Instruction TRIS# - Accessed via TRIS PORT# Instruction
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Figure 8.5 The low-end PIC microcontroller register space showing limited contiguous le register groups.
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This loop will never end because FSR can never equal 0. The FSR can be a useful temporary register in mid-range devices because you don t have to de ne it, and if indexed addressing is not used in the application, it really becomes a free le register for your use. Since the FSR can never be 0 in low-end devices, I recommend that it is never used except in its primary function as an array index register.
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PORTING TO THE PIC18
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There really aren t that many differences between the three major PIC microcontroller architectures. In fact, using the rules outlined in the preceding section will help you to write code that can be passed back and forth between any of the different PIC microcontroller devices quite simply and with very little device-speci c modi cation. The signi cant differences in the PIC18 devices from the lower-end architectures are
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Different PCLATH and goto/call instruction operation Sixteen-bit instruction words with the ability to address them directly Compare and branch instructions Different register bank organization An 8-bit hardware multiplier Additional arithmetic and bitwise operation instructions
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Other than these differences, application code written for low-end and mid-range PIC microcontrollers should execute without any problems in higher-end devices. There is
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ASSEMBLY-LANGUAGE SOFTWARE TECHNIQUES
a caveat here: In early PIC18 device datasheets there is the comment that they are source code compatible with mid-range devices. While there is some truth to this comment because many of the arithmetic and bit instructions work identically, data addressing with the execution change instructions, as well as operation of the program counter and index registers, is decidedly different, and you cannot rebuild mid-range PIC microcontroller source code for a PIC18 without considerable modi cation. When you develop your rst applications for PIC18 devices, I recommend that you do not access the PCLATH and PCLATU registers for your rst applications. This should not be a signi cant hardship for you because the page size is quite large, and the PIC18 can jump to any address in program memory. The only time that you should be modifying the PCLATH and PCLATU registers is when you are executing computed (table) jumps. The addition of the compare a register to the w register and skip the next instruction on a condition is a unique capability to the PIC18. If these instructions are going to be used, then I recommend that their functions be implemented in low-end and midrange PIC microcontrollers using macros. For example, the cpfseq instruction, which skips the next instruction if the contents of the register are equal to the w register, could be implemented in low-end and mid-range PIC microcontrollers as
cpfseq macro Register subwf Register, w btfss STATUS, Z endm ; Subtract w from Register
Compare and skip if less than (cpfslt) also can be implemented easily with the macro code
cpfslt macro Register subwf Register, w btfsc STATUS, C endm ; Subtract w from Register
Compare and skip if greater is a bit more complex and requires the use of a double bit skip on condition because the carry ag will be set if the contents of Register are equal to or greater than the contents of w :
cpfsgt subwf btfss btfss endm macro Register Register, w STATUS, Z STATUS, C ; Subtract w from Register ; Don t Skip if Zero Set ; Skip if Zero Reset and Carry Set
Note that these instructions change the contents of the w register and the STATUS register ags. For most applications, this should not be an issue, but if previous ag values are used in the application, then when porting to low-end and mid-range PIC microcontrollers, you might want to save the STATUS register before executing the macros.
PORTING CODE BETWEEN PIC MICROCONTROLLER DEVICE ARCHITECTURES
The PIC18 s branch on condition is somewhat unusual because it uses a relative offset rather than a page address, as do all other PIC microcontroller execution change instructions. This should not be an issue when creating macros for porting the function to lowend and mid-range PIC microcontrollers unless a page boundary is going to be crossed. For this reason, I recommend making sure that the appropriate PAx bits in low-end devices and the appropriate PCLATH bits in mid-range devices are changed before the instruction. The PIC18 BC ( branch if carry ) instruction can be simulated in low-end PIC microcontrollers using the macro
bc macro Address local EndAddress if ((Address & 0x0400) != 0) bsf STATUS, PA1 else bcf STATUS, PA1 endif if ((Address & 0x0200) != 0) bsf STATUS, PA0 else bcf STATUS, PA0 endif btfsc STATUS, C goto Address & 0x01FF if ((EndAddress & 0x0400) != 0) bsf STATUS, PA1 else bcf STATUS, PA1 endif if ((EndAddress & 0x0200) != 0) bsf STATUS, PA0 else bcf STATUS, PA0 endif EndAddress endm
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