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A Baker s Dozen Rules to Follow That Will Help to Avoid Application Software Problems
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In PIC microcontroller programming, I nd that there are a number of rules to always apply that will prevent the opportunity for basic problems later. Here are 13 rules that I always follow when I develop a PIC microcontroller application in assembly language that help to keep the application from having problems that will be dif cult to x later:
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1 Always initialize your variables. I have been caught more than a few times reading
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the contents of a variable before I have written to it. In the PIC microcontroller, le registers are not initialized to any speci c value they can be any value from 0x000 to 0x0FF. If you don t know what to initialize them to, use 0. This matches the initial values used by the MPLAB simulator to at least guarantee that they will work the same way in the application as they do in the simulator. Indent conditionally executing code after a skip instruction. This is naturally taught for high level languages, but it does have its place in PIC microcontroller assembly language to make conditionally executing instructions stand out visually. Let the compiler/assembler do the calculations for you. This will help to make your code more portable to other applications and save you the hassle of working with a calculator trying to gure out what the values should be (and potentially making a mistake). Use Microchip s register de nition les without modi cation in all your applications. I can t tell you how many times I ve helped people with broken applications where the only problem was that they copied in a register or bit address incorrectly. Microchip has spent a lot of time developing the include les that are shipped with MPLAB and making sure that they are correct. There s no reason for you to duplicate this effort. In addition, don t change register/bit labels or use different ones. Even if you are more familiar with different terms, don t use them. By changing the labels to what you are comfortable with, you are making the code more dif cult for others to follow and increasing the opportunity for errors to be introduced into your application s source code. Keep your code as simple as possible. When the PIC microcontroller application is working, everybody will be impressed with how it works, not the complexity or cleverness of your code. Develop your application in terms of functional blocks and interfaces. Instead of creating one massive application, develop it as a series of steps, each of which is simulated or tested on hardware before proceeding and integrating them together.
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7 Establish a plan to test and con rm that your code is correct. Test your code each
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step of the way, and do not move on to the next step until you are 100 percent satis ed with the performance of the code up to that point. Use CBLOCK or other utilities to allocate variables instead of de ning them manually. Using a variable de ne utility will avoid problems later when variables have to be added or deleted, at which time you will have to manually work through all the potentially affected addresses. This also goes for goto and call instruction destinations. Let the assembler generate the absolute addresses unless a speci c address is absolutely required. Avoid changing the register bank unless it is absolutely necessary. Ideally, an application should be designed so that all the bank 1 registers and hardware are initialized after reset and then executes in bank 0 for the rest of the application. Going along with this, design your application so that single-byte/word variables are in bank 0 and array variables are in bank 1 (which can be accessed by the FSR register without changing the RP0 bit in the STATUS register). This will help to avoid having to keep straight what bank the application is currently running in. Don t allow code to go over page boundaries except when calling subroutines. If your mid-range PIC microcontroller code is larger than 2,048 instructions, place your subroutines in the upper page. Code that is allowed to drift over page boundaries can have problems with the correct PCLATH register contents. Use the _ _CONFIG statement always in your source code, and use a programmer that programs the con guration information automatically instead of one that requires manual intervention. When developing your application, keep the watchdog timer (WDT) disabled, and only enable it in the _ _CONFIG statement when all other functions have been debugged. Simulate as much of your application as is possible. The time used to develop a stimulus le and single stepping through it will be saved several times over in the time needed to debug the application if simulation has not been carried out. Try to keep the amount of nested subroutine calling in your application to a minimum. All the PIC microcontroller families have limited stacks and are not designed for recursive functions in applications. Always make sure that your maximum calling depth is less than 2 for low-end devices, 8 for mid-range devices, and 31 for the PIC18 PIC microcontrollers. Note that interrupt handlers use the same stack, and the maximum depth of their execution must be summed with the maximum depth of the mainline to avoid any potential problems in the application s execution.
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