barcode reader project in asp.net Figure 1.18 Conceptual diagram of a CMOS SRAM memory cell. in Software

Painting Quick Response Code in Software Figure 1.18 Conceptual diagram of a CMOS SRAM memory cell.

Figure 1.18 Conceptual diagram of a CMOS SRAM memory cell.
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Figure 1.19 Stacks store data with the last item stored to be the rst item retrieved.
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because it uses very little power (current only ows when the state is changed) and is quite fast. It is not very ef cient in terms of silicon space, as the six transistors required for each memory cell actually take up quite a bit of silicon surface area (or real estate ). Along with being able to access memory via absolute addresses, microcontrollers provide stack memory, which can be used for saving context information before a subroutine call or as part of the start of an interrupt handler. Instead of storing data at speci c addresses, stacks (see Fig. 1.19) save data in a processor the same way you save papers on your desk, with the item on top of the pile being the rst that you look at. A stack is known as a last in/ rst out (LIFO) memory. This should be pretty obvious the rst work item on the stack of paper will be last one you get to. In a computer processor, a stack works in exactly the same manner as the stacked paper example. Data most recently put onto the stack (this is known as a push) is the rst item pulled off the stack (this is a pop). The operation could be modeled with array variables using the pseudocode below:
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push(data) { SP++; in Memory Stack[SP] = data; } // End push // // Point to the Next Address Store the Data
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int pop() { int i; i = Stack[SP]; the SP SP ; return i; } // End pop // // Get Data Pointed to by Decrement the SP
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The PIC microcontrollers do not have data stacks available to you, but there are other ways of storing data that I will go through in more detail later in the book.
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Microcontroller Communication
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The capability of microcontrollers to communicate with other devices has become very important in the past few years. In the previous editions of this book, communication was discussed more as an afterthought. With the explosion of the Internet, the number of applications that require microcontrollers to be able to communicate with other devices have grown signi cantly. In this book, there will be more emphasis placed on enabling PIC microcontroller communication with other devices, both directly in pointto-point communication and in networked environments. The term point-to-point communication describes connecting a microcontroller to devices that have known addresses. The term may seem confusing as it encompasses busses of multiple devices as well as communication paths that link two devices together. Several memory and peripheral chips connected to a microcontroller would be accessed using point-to-point communication techniques even if they could be removed during operation of the application (like a device on a network) because their addresses remain constant. In networked communications, the interface hardware and software allow for changing addresses, even if practically speaking, the same hardware (and the same addresses) are available throughout the life of the application. An important feature of networked devices is that they can generally operate even when the network is not available to the device. This differentiation between point-to-point communication and network communication may seem subtle, but as you will see in the following sections, there are signi cant differences in the way the communication schemes are implemented.
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POINT-TO-POINT COMMUNICATION
Point-to-point communication between two devices in an application is typically implemented using serial connections to provide a basic data transfer capability. Many new developers will connect the devices in parallel (all bits transferred simultaneously on individual connections) with a full bus (consisting of address, data, and control lines) as this is something they are most comfortable with, having seen how chips are wired in microprocessor circuits. Embedded microcontrollers do not have the number of pins available to a typical microprocessor. They have just a few pins available, resulting in point-to-point communication being implemented using a serial data format. The serial protocols used are generally quite simple to implement although there can be some tricks to coding them. In this section, I will present the serial data transfer protocols used in point-to-point communication. Applications that have multiple devices communicating with a microcontroller are not limited to just two chips; there are many applications with multiple chips connected to the central MCU. An obvious way of connecting these devices is to provide an individual connection from the microcontroller as shown in Fig. 1.20. This method obviously can only be used when there are suf cient I/O pins built into the microcontroller to allow connections between each device. If there are not enough pins, a bussed connection (Fig. 1.21) will have to be implemented using a point-to-point communication method that allows multiple devices to be connected together and not interfere with each other s operation. There
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