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PIC12C50X AND PIC16C505 PIN ACCESSING
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I really like PIC12C5xx parts and the PIC16C505, but the rst time you use them, you probably will nd that you cannot access all the I/O pins by default. This is due to the various built-in features of the chips, and you need to make sure that the internal features are all speci ed correctly before you attempt to use them in an application. Changing the internal hardware to allow these pins to be used to access external devices is a relatively simple operation. I ve included the process here because there are pins in other devices that are also devoted initially to speci c functions, and you will have to make sure that you understand how to gure out which default functions need to be changed before the pins they affect can be used. In these parts, the built-in oscillator is selected by the _IntRC_OSC parameter of the __CONFIG statement. When the PIC microcontroller is programmed, a value for the calibration register (OSCCAL) has to be inserted. By convention, a
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movlw OSCCAL_VALUE
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is put in at the reset address and then at address 0 (when the program counter over ows and becomes 0); this value is saved into the OSCCAL register using the movwf OSCCAL instruction. When choosing the programmer you are going to use for this part, make sure that it can handle the calibration value of the PIC microcontrollers with the built-in oscillator feature and that it can program the calibration value into the application. For EPROM-based parts, the calibration value should be read out using the programmer before erasure and then speci ed by the user separately from the application s .hex le during application programming. Programmers for Flash-based parts should read this calibration value before erasing the device and programming it back in as part of the programming operation. Note that calibration values cannot be predicted. When I was doing the second edition of this book, I took a number of windowed PIC12C508s that I had bought together. They were all marked with the same date/lot code, and I found that their calibration values were 0xD0 0x90 0x30
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0x80 0xA0 0x90 Developing your own calibration value could be done by trying values out against a calibrated PIC microcontroller and seeing which value has the minimum difference in timing with the calibrated device. However, it is much easier to record the factory calibration value when you rst buy the part before you program it. The internal reset is enabled by the _MCLR_ OFF parameter of __CONFIG. This parameter disables the external (the E in _MCLRE_OFF) MCLR# pin and ties the PIC microcontroller s internal reset to Vdd. The MCLR# pin now becomes an input pin for the application. Once the _IntRC_OSC and _MCLRE_OFF parameters are put into the __CONFIG statement and the OSCCAL value in the w register is saved, you will nd that the pin that provides the clock input (GP2 in the PIC12C5xx) cannot be used for I/O. This is due to the reset value of the T0CS bit of the OPTION register being set, which causes the pin to be selected for TMR0 input. This overrides the I/O functions of the pin. Simply resetting the bit in the OPTION register will allow the pin to be used for normal I/O. When I create a PIC12C5xx or PIC16C505 application, the initial code that I use is
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__CONFIG _MCLRE_OFF & _IntRC_OSC ; Add Application Speci c ; CP and WDT parameters org 0 movf OSCCAL movlw 0x0FF ^ (1 << T0CS) option ; All I/O pins are NOW Available and Internal 4 MHz Clock is Running ; - Start Application
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There are a few points to remember. First, note that the pin that can be used for MCLR# is only available for input. Second, this pin is not clamped with diodes inside the PIC microcontroller and probably is used for the Vpp pin, which means that high-voltage invalid inputs could reset the PIC microcontroller and put it into programming mode. Lastly, remember that any and all writes to the OPTION register must keep the T0CS bit at reset or the bit that can be used for TMR0 input may stop being I/O-capable.
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