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4 The hex le (.hex) 5 The debugger le (.cod or .coff), which is used to allow source-code-level sim-
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6 The linker le (.lkr), which may have been brought into the build folder to modify
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7 The application map le (.map), which outlines how the application uses data and
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program memory All the other les can be ignored. The linker le will be explained in more detail in the next section, but I wanted to point out its existence and its function, which is to specify where code and variables can be placed. Each location for code or memory is labeled, and you can specify different functions to be placed in speci c locations in the PIC microcontroller. The application map le is a very complex le that lists how the application was organized and will be stored in memory. To truly understand how the application is laid out, you will need to cross-reference this le to the listing les because the listing les have
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the sizes needed by the different object les, and you can see how they were located in the nal .hex le using the .map le. For the most part, you won t care how the code is placed in the PIC microcontroller, but as you develop more complex applications and use different tools such as bootloaders, you will be taking on a greater interest in how the application code is stored. When you are implementing C applications, you are going to have to identify global variables that are used in the different source les properly. This is actually quite simple; I would recommend that all global variables be declared in the same le as the application main is located. In the other les, these declarations can be copied, but after the le type, put in the directive extern like
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When the extern is used, the variable cannot be initialized as part of the declaration. This can be done only in the primary variable declaration. This overview is actually all you have to do to implement linked PICC and PIC18 applications. Creating linked applications for code written in other languages is quite a bit of work, with the need to de ne code segments and data segments for variables and ensure that the code is either relocatable (which means that it can be placed anywhere in memory) or that you specify explicitly where it is going to be located. This work is not terribly dif cult, but it is very easy to make a mistake in. As you start working with more complex applications, I would suggest that you minimize the amount of assembler code that you create and work exclusively in PICC or PIC18, with any necessary assembly language being embedded in C source les. .lkr FILES The linker script (PIC MCU part number.lkr) describes how the different memories (program memory, le registers, and data EEPROM) are set up in a speci c PIC microcontroller. Memory areas (known as CODEPAGE or DATABANK) within the architecture can be PROTECTED, preventing the linker from placing code or variables at these locations. As you become more familiar with linked-code development on the PIC microcontroller and you are looking to develop more and more complex applications, you will want to customize the linker les so that you can specify explicitly how applications are loaded into the target PIC microcontroller. A sample .lkr le for the PIC16F84 is
// Sample linker command le for 16F84 // $Id: 16f84.lkr,v 1.4.16.1 2005/11/30 15:15:29 curtiss Exp $ LIBPATH CODEPAGE CODEPAGE CODEPAGE CODEPAGE CODEPAGE . NAME=vectors NAME=page NAME=.idlocs NAME=.con g NAME=eedata START=0x0 START=0x5 START=0x2000 START=0x2007 START=0x2100 END=0x4 END=0x3FF END=0x2003 END=0x2007 END=0x213F PROTECTED PROTECTED PROTECTED PROTECTED
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DATABANK DATABANK DATABANK SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION
NAME=sfr0 NAME=sfr1 NAME=gprs NAME=STARTUP NAME=PROG NAME=IDLOCS NAME=DEEPROM
START=0x0 START=0x80 START=0xC ROM=vectors ROM=page ROM=.idlocs ROM=eedata
END=0xB END=0x8B END=0x4F // // // //
PROTECTED PROTECTED
Reset and interrupt vectors ROM code space ID locations Data EEPROM
This le notes that the reset vectors instruction area (the four locations before the interrupt vector) are PROTECTED and cannot have user-developed code stored in them. Next, the program memory that the application can reside in is speci ed (0x5 to 0x3FF). Following this, the IDLOCS con guration register addresses are protected as is the EEPROM data area. For variable storage, the DATABANK statements outline the locations of the special function registers (which cannot be used for variables), along with the le registers (gprs) that are used for variables. The PIC16F84 cannot show an important aspect of the .lkr le, and that is how code pages and register banks are handled by the linker. In other devices, such as the PIC16C63, which has two register banks and two code pages, there are additional statements to indicate their presence:
// Sample linker command le for 16C63 // $Id: 16c63.lkr,v 1.3.16.1 2005/11/30 15:15:28 curtiss Exp $ LIBPATH CODEPAGE CODEPAGE CODEPAGE CODEPAGE CODEPAGE DATABANK DATABANK DATABANK DATABANK SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION . NAME=vectors NAME=page0 NAME=page1 NAME=.idlocs NAME=.con g NAME=sfr0 NAME=sfr1 NAME=gpr0 NAME=gpr1 NAME=STARTUP NAME=PROG1 NAME=PROG2 NAME=IDLOCS START=0x0 START=0x5 START=0x800 START=0x2000 START=0x2007 START=0x0 START=0x80 START=0x20 START=0xA0 ROM=vectors ROM=page0 ROM=page1 ROM=.idlocs END=0x4 END=0x7FF END=0xFFF END=0x2003 END=0x2007 END=0x1F END=0x9F END=0x7F END=0xFF // // // // Reset and interrupt vectors ROM code space - page0 ROM code space - page1 ID locations PROTECTED
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