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Figure 17.12 Text appears at the current LCD cursor position; to overwrite characters, the cursor can be moved.
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PIC MCU INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICE INTERFACING
0 1 2
Offset
3 4 5 6 7 4 3 2 1 0 Bit Numbers
Figure 17.13 The custom LCD characters have to t in a 7 5 pixel box.
of the character on the LCD to which the cursor is to move. These 7 bits provide 128 addresses, which matches the maximum number of LCD character addresses available. Table 17.3 should be used to determine the address of a character offset on a particular line of an LCD display. The character set available in the 44780 is basically ASCII. I say basically because some characters do not follow the ASCII convention fully (probably the most signi cant difference is 0x05B, or \, is not available). The ASCII control characters (0x008 to 0x01F) do not respond as control characters and may display funny (Japanese) characters. Eight programmable characters are available and use codes 0x000 to 0x007. They are programmed by pointing the LCD s cursor to the character generator RAM (CGRAM) area at eight times the character address. The next 8 bytes written to the RAM are the line information of the programmable character starting from the top. The character box representation is shown in Fig. 17.13. I like to represent this as eight squares by ve, as is shown in the diagram to the right. Earlier I noted that most displays were 7 pixels by 5 for each character, so the extra row may be confusing. Each LCD character is actually 8 pixels high, with the bottom row normally used for the underscore cursor. The bottom row can be used for graphic characters, although if you are going to use a visible underscore cursor and have it at the character, I recommend that you don t use it (i.e., set the line to 0x000). Using this box, you can draw in the pixels that de ne your special character and then use the bits to determine what the actual data codes are. When I do this, I normally use a piece of graph paper and then write hex codes for each line, as I show in Fig. 17.14, to produce a diagram of a simple smiley face. For some animate applications, I use character rotation for the animations. This means that instead of changing the character each time the character moves, I simply display a different character. Doing this means that only 2 bytes (moving the cursor to the character and the new character to display) have to be sent to the LCD. If animation were accomplished by rede ning the characters, then 10 characters would have to be sent to
LCDs
0 1 2 Offset 3 4 5 6 7 4 3 2 1 0
0 00E 0 000 0 00A 0 004 0 011 0 00E 0 000 0 000
Bit Numbers
A custom character de nition.
the LCD (one to move into the CGRAM space, the eight de ning characters, and an instruction returning to display RAM). If multiple characters are going to be used or more than eight pictures for the animation, then you will have to rewrite the character each time. The user-de ned character line information is saved in the LCD s CGRAM area. This 64-byte space of memory is accessed using the move cursor into CGRAM instruction in a similar manner to that of moving the cursor to a speci c address in the memory with one important difference. This difference is that each character starts at eight times its character value. This means that user-de nable character 0 has its data starting at address 0 of the CGRAM, character 1 starts at address 8, character 2 starts at address 0x010 (16), and so on. To get a speci c line within the userde nable character, its offset from the top (the top line has an offset of 0) is added to the starting address. In most applications, characters are written to all at one time with character 0 rst. In this case, the instruction 0x040 is written to the LCD, followed by all the user-de ned characters. The last aspect of the LCD to discuss is how to specify a contrast voltage to the display. I typically use a potentiometer wired as a voltage divider (Fig. 17.15). This will provide an easily variable voltage between ground and Vcc that will be used to specify the contrast (or darkness) of the characters on the LCD screen. You may nd that different LCDs work differently, with lower voltages providing darker characters in some and higher voltages doing the same thing in others.
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