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On Period Vref Gnd Period Vout = Vref * On Period Period + VOut
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Figure 17.22 The PWM output can be converted to an analog voltage using an RC low-pass lter.
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applications and will serve as a heartbeat to let the receiver know that the PIC microcontroller is still functioning, even though the output is stuck at an extreme. In the preceding example I expended quite a bit of energy in making sure that the period remains the same regardless of the on time. This was done to make sure that the changes in the duty cycle remained proportional to the changes in the on period. This is important if the PWM output is going to be passed through a low-pass lter, as shown in Fig.17.22, to output an analog voltage. In many applications where a PWM signal is communicating with another digital device, this effort to ensure that the period is constant is not required. In these cases, a timer is used to time the on period. This can be shown as the pseudocode
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Int TimeOn() { int i = 0; // // // Wait for the Pulse to Start Time the Pulse Width Return the Pulse Width // Time the Width of an incoming Pulse
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while (PWMIP == off); for ( ; PWMIP == ON; i++ ); return i; } // end TimeOn
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with the actual PIC microcontroller assembly-language code being quite simple but dependent on the maximum pulse width value being timed very long pulses will require large counters or delays in between the PWM input (PWMIP in TimeOn above) poll. Passing analog data back and forth between digital devices in any format is not going to be accurate owing to the errors in digitizing the value and restoring it. This is especially true for PWM signals, which can have very large errors owing to the sender and receiver not being properly synched up and the receiver not starting to poll at the correct time interval. In fact, the measured value could have an error of upward of 10 percent from the actual value. This loss of data accuracy means that analog signals should not
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be used for data transfers. However, as I will show later in this book, PWM signals are an excellent way to control analog devices such as LEDs and motors. When using a PWM signal for driving an analog device, it is important to make sure that the frequency is outside the range of what a human can perceive. As noted in the LED section earlier, this frequency is 30 Hz or more. For motors and other devices that may have an audible whine, however, the PWM signal used should have a frequency either below 50 Hz or 20 kHz or more to ensure that the signal does not bother the user (although it may cause problems with the user s dogs). The lower PWM frequency is probably surprising, but there are a lot of small motors that work very well with the low PWM frequency. The problem with the higher frequencies is that the granularity of the PWM signal decreases. This is due to the inability of the PIC microcontroller (or whatever digital device is driving the PWM output) to change the output in relatively small time increments from on to off relative to the size of the PWM signal s period. In the preceding example code, four instruction cycles (of 1 s each) are the lowest level of granularity for the PWM signal that results in about 250 unique output values. If the PWM signal s period was decreased to 100 s from 1 ms for a 10-kHz frequency, the same code would have only 25 or so unique values that could be output. In this case, to retain the original code s granularity, the PIC microcontroller would have to be sped up 10 times (not possible for most applications) or another way of implementing the PWM would have to be found.
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