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computers). It should be noted that the stop bit is always a 1, which is the reason for asynchronous communications being known as NRZ, or never return zero at the end of the packet, the stop bit makes the line a 1, and the receiver knows that new data is coming in when a 0 start bit is detected. The parity bit is a crude method of error detection that was rst brought in with teletypes. The purpose of the parity bit is to indicate whether the data was received correctly. An odd parity bit meant that if all the mark bits in a packet after the start and before the stop bits were counted, the result would be an odd number. Even parity is checking all the data and parity bits and seeing if the number of mark bits is an even number. Along with even and odd parity, there are mark, space, and no parity. Mark parity means that the parity bit is always set to a 1, space parity is always having a 0 for the parity bit, and no parity is eliminating the parity bit altogether. The most common form of asynchronous serial data packet is 8-N-1, which means 8 data bits, no parity, and 1 stop bit. This re ects the capabilities of modern computers to handle the maximum amount of data with the minimum amount of overhead and with a very high degree of con dence that the data will be correct. I stated that parity bits are a crude form of error detection. I said this because they can only detect one bit error (i.e., if 2 bits are in error, the parity check will not detect the problem). If you are working in a high-induced-noise environment, you may want to consider using a data protocol that can detect (and, ideally, correct) multiple bit errors.
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RS-232
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In the early days of computing (the 1950s), while data could be transmitted at high speed, it couldn t be read and processed continuously. Thus a set of handshaking lines and protocols were developed for what became known as RS-232 serial communications. With RS-232, the typical packet contained 7 bits (which is the number of bits in an ASCII character). This simpli ed the transmission of human-readable text but made sending object code and data (which were arranged as bytes) more complex because each byte would have to be split up into two nybbles (which are 4 bits long). Further complicating this is the fact that the rst 32 characters of the ASCII character set are de ned as special characters (i.e., carriage return, back space, etc.). This meant that the data nybbles would have to be converted (shifted up) into valid characters (this is why if you ever see binary data transmitted from a modem or embedded in an e-mail message, data is either sent as hex codes or as the letters A to Q). With this protocol, to send a single byte of data, 2 bytes (with the overhead bits resulting in 20 bits in total) would have to be sent (and surprisingly enough, to send data would take twice as long as sending a text le of the same length). As I pointed out earlier, modern asynchronous serial data transmission is normally 8 bits at a time, which will avoid this problem and allow transmission of full bytes without breaking them up or converting them. The actual RS-232 communications model is shown in Fig. 17.28, and in RS-232, the different devices are wired according to the functions they perform. DTE stands for data terminal equipment and is meant to be the connector used for computers (the PC uses this type of connection). DCE, or data communications equipment, was meant for modems that transfer data to other long-distance devices.
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