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DC MOTORS
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Motor Control
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Figure 18.5 The current drawn by the motor can be monitored by adding a low-value resistor in series and monitoring the voltage drop across it.
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and the motor normally draws 2 A, then I would recommend a 5-W resistor for situations where the motor starts up (and is in a high-current-draw situation) as well as when the motor is being stalled, in which case the current could double or triple. For this example, the normal operating difference of the two voltage sensors should be 1 V, but in the case of a stalled motor, the voltage difference could be as high as 3 or 4 V (which would indicate a stalled motor that should be shut down).
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In the preceding section I introduced you to the dc motor and presented you with a simple control along with a method of monitoring operation of the motor. This is a very basic level of control and is not useful for most situations; what you will really need is the ability to change the direction of the motor. The dc motor turns in the direction of the current ow through it, so to change the direction of the motor, you have to change the direction of the current ow. This is normally accomplished using a network of switches known as an H-bridge and is shown in Fig. 18.6. In this circuit, if all the switches are open, no current will ow, and the motor won t turn. If switches 1 and 4 are closed, the motor will turn in one direction. If switches 2 and 3 are closed, the motor will turn in the other direction. Both switches on one side of the bridge never should be closed at the same time because this will cause the motor power supply to burn out, or a fuse will blow because there is a current path directly from motor power to ground.
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MOTOR CONTROL
Motor Power 1 2
Motor
Figure 18.6 The H-bridge allows current to ow through a dc motor in either direction.
An H-bridge could be wired using a collection of transistors, but when you are rst starting out, I recommend that you use something like the 293D (see Fig. 18.7) or 298 H-bridge driver chips that are designed for controlling a small dc motor. The 293D chip can control two motors (one on each side) connected to the buffer outputs (pins 3, 6, 11, and 14). Pins 2, 7, 10, and 15 are used to control the voltage level (the switches in the H-bridge diagram) of the buffer outputs. Pins 1 and 9 are used to control whether or not the buffers are enabled. These can be PWM inputs, which makes control of the motor speed very easy to implement. Vs is 5 V used to power the logic in the chip, and Vss is the power supplied to the motors and can be anywhere from 4.5 to 36 V. A maximum of 500 mA can be supplied to the motors. As with the ULN2003A, the 293D
MCU PWM Motor Direct n
Vcc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Motor Power 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
Motor 5 Ohm 0.1 uF Optional Snubber
Figure 18.7 The 293D quad half H-bridge chip is an ef cient way of driving two dc motors.
DC MOTORS
contains integral shunt diodes. This means that to attach a motor to the 293D, no external shunt diodes are required. In the example circuit in Fig. 18.7, you ll notice that I ve included an optional snubber resistor and capacitor. These two components, wired across the brush contacts of the motor, will help to reduce electromagnetic emissions and noise spikes from the motor. In the motor control circuits that I have built, I have never found them to be necessary. If you nd erratic operation from the microcontroller when the motors are running, however, you may want to put in the 0.1- F capacitor and 5- (2-W) resistor snubber across the motor s brushes, as shown in the circuit above. You must remember that the 293D and 298 motor controller chips are bipolar devices with a 0.7-V drop across each driver (or 1.4 to 1.5 V for a dual-driver circuit, as is shown in Fig. 18.7). This drop must be factored in when selecting the motor to be used, and the motor power voltage applied to the chips, along with the current drawn by the motor, results in a fairly signi cant amount of power dissipation within the driver. The 293D is limited to 1 A total output, and the 298 is limited to 3 A. For these circuits to work best, a signi cant amount of heat sinking is required. A modi cation of the full bridge is the half H-bridge shown in Fig. 18.8. While requiring literally twice the power supply of the full H-bridge, it only requires half the number driver transistors as the full H-bridge. This circuit has advantages over the full H-bridge in that it does not require complementary PNP or P-channel MOSFETs to the NPN or N-channel MOSFET drivers, which means that there will be less power loss through the control transistors.
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