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MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING A SOFTWARE PWM
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With the H-bridge we have a circuit that can be used to control motor direction, so the only aspect of the motor that is left to control is the speed at which the motor turns. This
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Figure 18.8 The half H-bridge driver is used in applications where the motor can be expected to turn equally in either direction.
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Figure 18.9 A completed basic motor control circuit using an ADC-equipped PIC microcontroller to specify the PWM duty cycle.
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is accomplished by using a PWM signal varying the amount of power being passed to the motor by turning it on and off rapidly (at a speed above human hearing so that any noise made by the motor turning on and off cannot be heard). This can be accomplished a number of different ways, which will be explored and demonstrated in this section. The circuit shown in Fig. 18.9 (with schematic in Fig. 18.10 and bill of materials in Table 18.2) is very fast to build and a good way to experiment with controlling dc motors using the PIC microcontroller.
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Vcc 12 Volts Input + 330 uF 78L05 +
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0.1 uF
8 V ss
GP2 GP0 7
IRF510 Vcc
Label Side
10 K Pot
Figure 18.10 The dc motor control circuit consists of an ADCequipped PIC microcontroller and a high-current MOSFET transistor to switch the motor on and off.
DC MOTORS
TABLE 18.2 BILL OF MATERIALS FOR DC MOTOR CONTROLLER CIRCUIT PART DESCRIPTION
PIC12F675 78L05 IRF510 330- F 0.1- F 10-k Misc. pot
PIC12F675 04/IP 78L05 5-V regulator in a TO-92 package
IRF510 high-current N-channel MOSFET transistor 330- F, 50-V electrolytic capacitor 0.1- F, 16-V tantalum capacitor 10-k single-turn potentiometer
Prototyping PCB, two screw terminals, wiring
I built my prototype on a fully drilled printed circuit board (PCB) prototyping card, and it took me less than half an hour to solder together the various components. I did this because the circuit is so simple that if I had made any mistakes, I could rewire and add components very easily. Note in the photograph of the project that I used a 2.5-mm power plug for the input, where I simply solder some 20-gauge solid-core wire to the power plug and wired it to the screw terminals used for the power connection. The potentiometer is used with the PIC microcontroller s ADC to provide the operating level for the motor. I used the GP0 pin for the analog voltage input, with the remaining ve pins used as digital input-output (I/O). The potentiometer will provide voltages anywhere from 0 to Vcc (5 V). The motor control simply consists of an IRF510 N-channel MOSFET driver transistor. This transistor is quite inexpensive and can handle up to 5.6 A with a 10-V input with an on resistance (between the drain and source) of 0.54 . This transistor is used as a switch for the PWM output. The actual application code is very simple and only requires 42 instructions. It was designed to output a 10-kHz PWM signal, with the ADC being polled in between each ADC pulse. This polling and the software associated with it are the reason why there is the inactive period at full speed when you look at the full-power PWM waveform. The pseudocode for the application is
main() { int int int ADCON = 32; ADCoff = 1; i; // Fan Control Application
OSCCAL = CalibrationValue;
MOTOR CONTROL
ADCON1 = 6; ADCON0 = 0x041; TRISIO = 0x03F ^ (1 << 2); while (1 == 1) { GP2 = 1;
// All I/O Pins Digital Except for GP0 // Enable the ADC // // GP2 is the PWM Output Loop Forever
// Output the PWM Signal while ADC // Capacitor is Stabilizing to the Pot // Input for (i = 0; i < ADCON; i++ ); GP2 = 0; for (i = 0; i < ADCoff; i++ ); ADCON0 = ADCON0 | Go; GP2 = 1; // Start the ADC Operation
// Output the PWM Signal while ADC // is processing the Pot Input for (i = 0; i < ADCON; i++ ); GP2 = 0; for (i = 0; i < ADCoff; i++ ); ADCON = (ADRES >> 3) + 1; // ADCoff = 33 ADCON; // } // Get the ADC Value and Scale it for the Application
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