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nd the wiring problem and then worked back to the other two problems, and I had them xed in time to save the manuscript on CD-ROM for Y2K.
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3RS: INTERFACING A PIC MICROCONTROLLER USING A THREE-WIRE RS-232 INTERFACE
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To nish off the experiments, I want to end with one that demonstrates how easy it is to interface a PIC microcontroller with a Microsoft Windows application. If you take a look at the code for both the PC and the PIC microcontroller, you ll probably feel like the application is quite complex, but as I go through the operation, you will see how easy it is to interface a PIC microcontroller serially to PC applications. The experiment itself uses the circuit shown in Fig. 20.34 (the bill of materials listed in Table 20.16). The serial data connect uses the Ping application described earlier in this book, in which an echoed (by hardware) 0xFF character is changed on its receive to something different. This operation is shown in Fig. 20.35, with the output byte of 0xF0 changed to 0x90. In the actual application, I used a data byte of 0xFF which is changed by the circuit to another character. I chose 0xFF because it is not a valid ASCII symbol and is easily recognized as such by a program such as Hyperterminal. In the PIC microcontroller application, the data byte 0xFF is waited for, and if it is received, then the next byte (which also should be 0xFF) is modi ed by changing the character that is echoed back to the host computer, which is a PC in this case. A LED connected to PORTA.2 (RA2) is lit if the connection is active (i.e., 0xFF characters are being received). The 3RS.asm application can be shown as the following pseudocode:
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main() { int i; char Data; // // 3RS Pseudo-Code, Used to Test and Establish Link to PC Host
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0.1 uF Tantalum Gnd Vcc 10 K
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_MCLR Osc 1 Osc 2 Vss
10 K
4 MHz
10 K
Female 9-Pin D-Shell
Figure 20.34 stealing.
Simple three-wire RS-232 interface with voltage
PIC MICROCONTROLLER APPLICATION BASICS
TABLE 20.16 INTERFACE PART
BILL OF MATERIALS FOR THREE-WIRE RS-232
DESCRIPTION
PIC 0.1- F 10k 4-MHz 220 1 LED
PIC16F84 04/P 0.1- F tantalum 10 k , 1/4 W 4 MHz with built-in capacitors 220 LED 330 , 1/4 W , 1/4 W
3303906 1 Female 9-pin D-shell
2N3906 transistor DB-9F Breadboard, wiring, +5-V power supply
Misc.
LED = off; while (1 == 1) {
// //
No Connection, LED Off Loop Forever
for (i = 0; (i < 600msec) && (SERIN == MARK); i++); // Poll Serial In Line for Start Bit HalfBitDlay(); if (SERIN == MARK) // Timeout Nothing Received LED = off; // Turn off the LED/No Connection else { // Something Received for (I = 0; I < 8; I++) {
Transmitted Character From PC (0 0F0) Transistor Control At External Device
+12 V Gnd 12 V
+5 V Gnd +12 V
Data Received by PC (0 090)
Gnd 12 V
+5 V
Figure 20.35 Simple test waveform sent to see if receiver is present and active.
SERIAL I/O
Data = (Data >> 1) + (SERIN << 7); BitDlay(); } // // Read Incoming Byte if (Data = 0x0FF){ LED = on; // 0x0FF Received Turn on LED to Indicate Data Incoming
for (i = 0; (i < 600msec) && (SERIN = MARK); i++); // Poll Serial Line for Second Byte HalfBitDlay(); if (SERIN == MARK) // Timeout Nothing Received LED = off; // Turn off the LED else { // Send Back Synch for (i = 0; i < 5; i++ ) BitDlay(); // Wait Past First Four Bits (+ Stop) SEROUT = SPACE; // Change the Data Going Out For (I = 0; I < 3; I++) BitDlay(); // Wait for 3 Bits SEROUT = MARK; BitDlay(); } // } // } // } // elihw } // end 3RS // // // // // Don t Change Anything Else Don t Change the Stop Bit End, Second 0x0FF Received End, First 0x0FF Received End, First Byte Received
The actual PIC microcontroller assembly-language code is 3RS.asm and can be found in the code\3RS folder.
title 3RS - Simple 3-Wire Communication Protocol ; ; This Application Implements a simple Communication ; protocol. The Link is assumed to be down unless the ; the character 0x0FF is received. When this character ; is received, then the next character (which is also ; 0x0FF), is received, the PIC microcontroller, Changes bits 4 ; through 6 from 1 to 0 and sends it back to the ; host . The RSReceive and RSTransmit were taken ; from SimpRS . ; ; ; Hardware Notes: ; PIC16F84 Running at 4 MHz
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