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Figure 21.8 The Polaroid 6500 ultrasonic ranging module.
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the sound waves bounce off the rst object that they come to. The ultrasonic pulse is triggered by the INIT line of the Polaroid 6500, and its ECHO line is driven high to indicate that the echoed signal has been received. The time required for the signal to return to the transducer is proportional to the distance from the transducer to the object in its line of sight. The 6500 module is speci ed to work for ranges from 6 in to 35 ft with an error of 1 percent. The INIT enable and ECHO return are shown in Fig. 21.9 for an object placed 16 ft from the transducer. On the oscilloscope picture, I have marked the pulse edges with cursor lines. Before going too far into this project, there are a few things I should mention. The rst is a warning: When the ultrasonic signal is sent, an incredible amount of energy is generated. At the transducer, 400 V is produced, and about 1.2 A is drawn from the power source. This is important to realize because nowhere in the Polaroid or any other documentation I found was there a warning about electrical shocks. For this reason, I insist that you do not use both hands when handling the operating transducer. When you do handle the transducer, put your left hand in your pocket to make sure that there is no chance for a current path through your heart. On the Polaroid 6500, there is a nine-conductor connector that is designed for having a at ex cable connected to it. One of the rst things that I did with the connector was to cut it off, unsolder the connections, and put wires into them. This can be seen in Fig. 21.8. This was one of the smartest things that I did because it really made prototyping and experimenting with the 6500 very easy. To experiment with the Polaroid 6500, I used a PIC12C509, taking advantage of its internal 4-MHz oscillator and reset. With these functions taken care of, all I required of it was three wires, two for interfacing to the Polaroid 6500 and one for sending serial data to the serial LCD interface. The circuit that I used can be seen in Fig. 21.10. The bill of materials for the project is listed in Table 21.3.
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Figure 21.9 The distance from the Polaroid 6500 s transducer to some object is found by measuring the time from the INIT trigger to when the ECHO line becomes active.
Vcc 1
U1 PIC12C509
Vdd GP0 7 8 Vss Vcc
R1 4.7 K
C1 0.1 uF
To SLI Module +C2 1000 uF
GP1 6 5 GP2
R2 4.7 K
7 9 2 4 8
Polaroid 6500 Component Side
Figure 21.10 Polaroid 6500.
The circuit used to measure distances using the
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TABLE 21.3
ULTRA BILL OF MATERIALS DESCRIPTION
REFERENCE DESIGNATOR
U1 R1, R2 C1 C2 Polaroid 6500 Misc.
PIC12C509/JW 4.7 k , 1/4 W 0.1 F tantalum 1,000 F, 35 V electrolytic Polaroid 6500 ultrasonic ranger with transducer Breadboard prototyping system, wiring, 1-A, 5-V power supply
A few comments are necessary about this circuit, the rst being the use of a 1-A rated 5-V bench power supply. The Polaroid 6500 is capable of drawing a large amount of current when it is activated. The reasonably large supply and very large (1,000- F electrolytic) lter capacitor are to make sure that operation of the Polaroid 6500 does not cause voltage surges that affect the operation of the circuit or power supply. The Ultra02.asm code (found in the code\Ultra folder) is only 156 instructions long. The reason why I chose the PIC12C509 and not the PIC12C508 is simply that I had more JW PIC12C509s on hand when I built this project than PIC12C508s. Either PIC microcontroller will work ne without any problems in this application. This application was really an experiment to learn more about the Polaroid 6500 and the ability of two internally clocked PIC microcontrollers to communicate with each other. To keep the application very simple, I built it on a breadboard, and it only takes 5 to 10 minutes for all ve components to be wired together and to the power supply. In Fig. 21.10 you can get an idea of how I implemented the interface wiring for the Polaroid 6500. After removing the ex socket that comes with the Polaroid 6500, I discovered that the connector vias were in the pattern shown in the schematic, with pin 1 being on the left-hand side and pin 9 being on the right-hand side. The lower pins, halfway between the upper row, are the even pins, and the upper row holds the odd pins. The pinout of the Polaroid 6500 is listed in Table 21.4. Operation of the 6500 is very straightforward; the INIT pin is asserted for typically up to 100 ms, and the controlling processor waits for the ECHO to come back. If the surface off of which the ultrasonic burst re ects is too close or too far away, then ECHO will never be asserted after INIT. The 6500 is speci ed to work at a minimum distance of 1.33 ft. This can be reduced to about 6 in by asserting the BINH line. By asserting BINH, any ringing of the transducer will be masked. BLNK will ignore any re ected inputs at speci c times after INIT is asserted. This is useful if there are multiple objects that the 6500 could detect. By blanking out the receiver when echoes are being received, a more accurate reading of the furthest object from the Polaroid 6500 can be made, which
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